How to Calculate TDEE (Total Daily Energy Expenditure)

If you want to know how many calories you should eat to build muscle or lose fat, you’ll want to read this article.

“How many calories should I eat?”

This question is asked more often than you would believe, especially by those entering the fitness lifestyle for the first time.

The answer to that question is — it depends.

Do you want to build muscle? Do you want to lose body fat? Or, do are you satisfied with your current physique and you would like to maintain your weight where it is.

Different goals require different calorie intakes. And, to further complicate the matter every person is different. Even if two people are roughly the same age, sex, height, and weight, and they have a similar amount of lean body mass, the could still have very different calorie needs.

You see there isn’t a one size fits all solution to the common question of “how many calories should I eat?”

But, despair not, as we’re going to show you in this article how to calculate the number of calories you need for your body based on your goals.

No matter if your goal is muscle gain, fat loss, body recomposition, or performance, the information in the article can help you achieve the results you want.

And, it all starts with a little something called TDEE.

What is TDEE?

TDEE stands for Total Daily Energy Expenditure. It is the total number of calories you burn in a given day. Your TDEE is determined by four key factors:

  • Basal Metabolic Rate
  • Thermic Effect of Food
  • Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis
  • Thermic Effect of Activity (Exercise)

Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)

Basal metabolic rate refers to the number of calories your body burns each day to keep you alive. BMR does not include physical activity, the process of digestion, or things like walking from one room to another.

Basically, BMR is the number of calories your body would expend in a 24 hour period if all you did was lay in bed all day long. This is the absolute bare minimum of calories it takes to ensure your survival.

Thermic Effect of Food (TEF)

When we eat food, our body must expend energy to digest the food we eat. This energy expenditure is referred to as the Thermic Effect of Food, and it involves breaking down the protein, carbohydrates, and fat you consume into the individual amino acids, sugars, and fatty acids that are then absorbed and used to by the body to carry out all of its processes including (but not limited to) building new tissue, synthesizing hormones, producing neurotransmitters, etc.

Research notes that the Thermic Effect of Food generally accounts for 10% of your total daily energy expenditure, but can be slightly higher or lower based on the exact macronutrient composition of your diet.[1]

For example, protein requires more energy to digest than carbohydrates or fat. So, if you’re eating a high protein diet, you will burn more calories, slightly, than if you were to eat the same number of calories, but with a significantly lower amount of protein.

Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT)

Non-exercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT) constitutes the number of calories expended during daily movement that is not categorized as structured exercise. NEAT includes activities such as walking the dog, moving from one room to another, or taking the stairs to your office.

NEAT is highly variable from one person to another and can play a rather large or small role in your overall TDEE depending on how physically active your job or daily happenings are. For example, a waitress or construction worker will have a significantly greater NEAT than an office worker who sits at a desk for 8 hours of the day and spends 2 hours commuting to and from work.

Thermic Effect of Activity (TEA)

Thermic Effect of Activity is the number of calories burned as a result of exercise (i.e. steady-state cardio, resistance training, HIIT, sprints, CrossFit, etc.). Similar to NEAT, thermic effect of exercise is highly variable from one person to another or even from one day to another for the same person, as the intensity of training, length of the workout, and training frequency all impact your weekly thermic effect of activity.

Your TDEE is the sum of these four factors, so to put the above parameters into a math equation for simplicity sake, calculating TDEE looks a little something like this:


When you add all of these numbers together, you get an estimate of the number of calories you need on a daily basis to maintain your current weight.

Now, let’s take a look at how you can calculate your individual TDEE.

How to Calculate TDEE

Figuring out your total daily energy expenditure begins with calculating your BMR. The reason we’re starting with BMR is that it contributes the biggest portion of your TDEE.

Now, there are a lot of handy calculators readily available on the internet for calculating BMR as well as TDEE. But, the way to truly understand how those fancy calculators work is by understanding the equations powering them.

So, that’s exactly what we’re going to do.

Calculating Basal Metabolic Rate

Researchers have developed a number of models for calculating BMR, and one of the most popular ones is the Harris-Benedict Equation, which takes into account age, height, and weight.

Here’s a step-by-step guide to calculate your BMR using the Harris-Benedict Equation:

  • Women BMR = 655 + (9.6 X weight in kg) + (1.8 x height in cm) – (4.7 x age in yrs)
  • Men BMR = 66 + (13.7 X weight in kg) + (5 x height in cm) – (6.8 x age in yrs)

As an example, let’s take a 30-year-old male named John who is 6 feet tall and weighs 185 lbs.

So, John’s stats converting from imperial units to metric yields:

Age: 30

Height: 6’0” = 72 inches = 182.88cm (to convert inches to centimeters, multiply your height in inches by 2.54)

Weight: 185 lbs = 84.09kg (to convert pounds to kilograms, divide your weight in pounds by 2.2)

Using the Harris-Benedict Equation for men, and plugging the above numbers into the equation gives you:

BMR = 66 + (13.7 x 84.09) + (5 x 182.88) – (6.8 x 30)

BMR = 66 + 1152.03 + 914.4 – 204

BMR = 1928.43

So, as a bare minimum to sustain life and ensure longevity, our example male John would need to consume roughly ~1930 calories.

The next step in figuring out TDEE would be to calculate the thermic effect of food as well as the non-exercise and exercise factors. However, these calculations are extremely tedious and the equations to model the caloric expenditure each requires isn’t the most reliable.

Fortunately, you don’t have to spend hours performing more tedious calculations. You don’t even have to use a fitness monitor or rely on those erroneous “Calories Burned” readouts on cardio machines to figure out the rest of the components of your TDEE.

Researchers have determined a set of “activity multipliers, known as the Katch-McArdle multipliers.

To calculate your approximate TDEE, simply multiply these activity factors by your BMR:

  • Sedentary (little to no exercise + work a desk job) = 1.2
  • Lightly Active (light exercise 1-3 days / week) = 1.375
  • Moderately Active (moderate exercise 3-5 days / week) = 1.55
  • Very Active (heavy exercise 6-7 days / week) = 1.725
  • Extremely Active (very heavy exercise, hard labor job, training 2x / day) = 1.9

Going back to our example guy John, let’s assume he trains 3 days per week following a high-frequency full body training program with no additional steady-state cardio or HIIT training during the week. This puts John in the “Moderately Active” category.

To calculate John’s approximate TDEE, multiply his BMR by 1.55. This gives us:

TDEE = 1.55 x BMR

TDEE = 1.55 x 1928.43

TDEE = 2989.07

So, our example guy John needs to consume about 2990 calories each day just to maintain his current weight.

Now, at this point, it’s important we stress that these equations and activity multipliers provide AN ESTIMATE for your daily calorie requirements. That is, your actual TDEE could be a little higher or lower than the number you calculate when you use the formula. But, it should be fairly close, and at the very least, it gives you a rough idea of where to start when figuring out a meal plan and setting macronutrient goals.

Speaking of goals, now let’s look at how you can use your TDEE to enhance your body composition whether it be for muscle gain or fat loss.

Manipulating TDEE for Muscle Gain and Fat Loss

So, how does knowing your TDEE help you gain muscle or lose fat?

While there’s endless debate in the fitness world about the “optimal” way to go about reshaping your body, this much is true:

  • If you want to lose fat, you need to eat fewer calories than your TDEE. Doing so forces your body to draw energy from its fat stores to compensate for the calories you’re not consuming each day. Do this long enough and you will lose weight and body fat
  • If you want to gain muscle mass, you need to eat more calories than your TDEE.To gain weight, you must be in a caloric surplus. Coupled with a rigorous training program following the principles of progressive overload, those extra calories will be put to building new muscle tissue.

Now, let’s see how to put this into practice

For Fat Loss

To lose fat, we typically recommend that using a caloric deficit of 20%. Once again using John as an example, if he wanted to cut fat, his caloric intake would be:

20% of TDEE = 0.20 x 2990 = 598

Daily calorie intake for weight loss: 2990 – 598 = 2,392 calories

At a 598 daily calorie deficit, John would lose a little over 1 pound per week, as 1 pound of fat equals approximately 3500 calories.

Now that we have the caloric intake needed for fat loss, we need to set John’s macros.

Protein: 1 gram per pound of bodyweight

Fat: 0.3 – 0.5 grams per pound of bodyweight

Carbohydrates: The number of calories remaining after protein and fat requirements are met.

Going back to our example guy John his daily macros, while eating at a 20% caloric deficit, would be:

  • Protein: 1g / lb x 185 lbs = 185g (Calories = 185g x 4 calories / g of protein = 740)
  • Fat:5g / lb x 185 lbs = 92.5g (Calories = 92.5g x 9 calories / g of fat = 832.5)Note: Fat can range from 0.3-0.5 grams per pound of bodyweight. Adjust up or down based on your own dietary preferences. If you enjoy eating a higher fat diet, use the 0.5g/lb multiplier, and if you enjoy a higher carb, lower fat diet use 0.3g/lb.
  • Carbs are determined by subtracting your protein and fat calories from the daily calorie total, then dividing by 4 to get the number of carbs you eat per day (as each gram of carbohydrate contains 4 calories). Calories left after removing protein and fat Calories = 2,392 – 740 – 832.5 Calories alloted for carbohydrate = 819.5 (which we’ll round up to 820 for simplicity)Now, divide 820 by 4 to get the total grams of carbohydrates John needs to consume each day:820 / 4 = 205g Carbohydrates

Therefore, John would consume the following macronutrient profile to lose fat while preserving lean muscle mass:

Protein: 185g
Fats: 92.5g
Carbohydrates: 205g

Eating at this calorie level should have John losing a little over one pound per week. Now, remember, the TDEE and BMR calculations are estimates. If you find, after performing your own calculations, that you’re not losing weight, then remove another 100 calories from your daily calorie intake and assess progress over the next 2 weeks.

If however, you find yourself losing more than 2 pounds per week, add 100 calories back into your diet. While it might seem great, losing too much weight too fast typically results in muscle loss as well, which is not what you want in the least.

Now, let’s look at how to manipulate TDEE for gaining muscle.

Muscle Gain

Gaining weight, and preferably muscle, requires consuming more calories than your body expends on a daily basis. When combined with a structured resistance training program, a caloric surplus provides the essential nutrients needed to optimize performance and build muscle.

For the longest time, it was preached that in order to get big, you had to eat big too. But, as sports nutrition has developed over the years, lifters and researchers alike have learned that the surplus needed to build lean muscle tissue isn’t a huge as we were once led to believe.

Simply put, the body can synthesize a finite amount of muscle tissue at any given time. That means that eating substantially more than what is required to build new muscle just leads to excess fat gain. Therefore, the trick to minimizing fat gain while trying to build muscle is to use a moderate calorie surplus, giving your body just enough to grow bigger, stronger, and faster, without getting fatter. This approach to muscle gain is known today as lean bulking.

To build muscle and limit fat gain, you need to consume roughly 200-300 calories above your TDEE.

So, using our example guy John again, whose TDEE was 2990. He would need to consume between 3190-3290 calories consistently day in and day out to gain muscle.

When undertaking a mass gaining phase, most coaches recommend that you get your surplus calories from carbohydrates, as they fuel performance in training, enhance recovery, and prevent muscle breakdown. They also help raise insulin levels, which is great for shuttling nutrients into your muscles cells needed for repair and growth.

But, if you find you enjoy more fat in your diet, you can feel free to get the extra 200-300 calories from fat or any mix of protein, carbohydrates, and fat. There’s no set in stone ideal ratio for gaining muscle once your minimums are taken care of.

Now, if you find that you are not gaining at least 0.25 lb/week, add another 100 calories to the daily caloric intake. If, however, you’re gaining over 1 lb per week, reduce your calorie intake by 100-200 calories. Gaining too much weight too fast usually means that you’re gaining a good bit of fat in addition to muscle, which means you’re eventually going to have to spend more time cutting later on in your fitness journey.


Total daily energy expenditure is the number of calories your body burns in a given day taking everything into account from sleep to digestion to exercise. TDEE calculators offer a way for you to figure out a close approximation to the actual number of calories you burn in a day, which you can then use to structure a diet for building muscle or burning fat.

Through proper manipulation and application of your TDEE, you have the power to reshape your body in your own ideal image and never ever have to settle for another cookie cutter meal plan or diet protocol. When knowing how many calories you need to eat for muscle gain or fat loss, you can eat the foods you enjoy while adhering to the calorie and macronutrient goals you set.

The saying goes “with knowledge comes power.” Well, we’ve now given you the knowledge and power to craft your ideal physique. It’s up to you to do the rest!


  1. Tappy, L. (1996). Thermic effect of food and sympathetic nervous system activity in humans. Reproduction, Nutrition, Development, 36(4), 391–397.

A Close Up on the Amino Acids in Protein Powder

Protein powder is quite frequently the very first supplement (outside of a multivitamin) you purchased when starting to workout. You were told protein was important for building muscles, and you were also probably told that whey protein is one of the best proteins to take for building muscle and recovering from training.

On the surface, protein powders seem pretty simple and straightforward. They include one or more forms of powdered protein (i.e. whey, casein, egg, milk, pea, etc.) along with salt, artificial sweeteners, and one or two thickeners and stabilizers. On top of that, using them couldn’t be any simpler. Simply add water, milk, or whatever liquid you want, shake, drink, and BOOM! You’ve got your quick fix of protein to support muscle recovery and growth.

But, have you ever given any thought to what your actual protein is made of?

More specifically, the individual amino acids that make up your favorite whey protein powder?

Probably not, and there’s nothing wrong with that. That’s where this quick reference guide comes in.

Ahead, we’ll explain what each of the different amino acids that go into making a complete whey protein powder is, and how they support your athletic goals.

But first, let’s make a quick distinction…

Naturally Occurring Amino Acids vs Spiked Protein Powders

While this issue isn’t nearly as much of a problem as it was 5-10 years ago, it still exists — spiked protein powders. What we mean by “spiked” is that extra free form amino acids, such as L-Glutamine, L-Taurine, or Creatine, were added in addition to whey protein in countless mass market protein powders.

These added amino acids artificially inflated the protein count on many protein powders, meaning that you weren’t really getting as much protein as the label claimed.

How can you tell if your protein is spiked?

Take a look at the ingredients panel and if you see a bunch of free-form amino acids listed before or after the whey protein, chances are pretty good that it’s spiked.

Now, the amino acids that we’re about to discuss below are the ones naturally occurring in whey protein, they’re not separate ones added to artificially enhance the protein content. Most protein powders will list which amino acids are naturally occurring in their whey protein powder on the side of the tub, but few people rarely know what those amino acids do, outside of the BCAAs, and that brings us back to the point of this article — a close up look at the individual amino acids in your whey protein powder.

So, let’s get to it!

The Amino Acids in Whey Protein

Whole food proteins, such as whey protein, chicken, steak, etc., are made from a combination of essential amino acids (EAA), conditional amino acids (CAA) and nonessential amino acids (NAA).

Essential Amino Acids are those that the body cannot synthesize on its own and they must be obtained from the diet. Nonessential Amino Acids are those that the body can produce from other essential amino acids, carbohydrates, and fats. Conditional Amino Acids can usually be synthesized by the human body; however, under certain conditions like illness or stress the body might not be able or might be limited in the ability to synthesize them.

What about BCAAs (branched-chain amino acids)?

The three BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) are a special subcategory of the essential amino acids, that serves as nitrogen carriers, which assist muscles in creating other amino acids required for anabolism (muscle growth).

With all of that squared away, let’s learn a little more about the amino acids in your whey protein powder:

Alanine (NAA): Not to be confused with the beta alanine, alanine is a nonessential amino acid that plays a critical role in glucose production and blood sugar regulation. Alanine also supports optimal functioning of the immune system as well as kidney stone prevention.*

Arginine (CAA): The most well-known function of arginine is to serve as the substrate for the production of nitric oxide, a powerful vasodilator that enhances blood flow and pumps during training and supports cardiovascular function. Arginine also plays a role in the healthy functioning of the pituitary gland and works with two other amino acids in L-Ornithine and phenylalanine.

Aspartic Acid (NAA): Aspartic acid serves a key role in the Krebs Cycle (TCA cycle) that provides energy to the body through its production of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). This nonessential amino acid is also needed for the production of immunoglobulins, antibodies, and DNA. In case you weren’t aware, immunoglobulins and antibodies are responsible for recognizing, binding, and eventually destroying harmful viruses and bacteria that invade the body.*

Cystine (CAA): Synthesized in the liver from the essential amino acid methionine, cysteine fulfills several important functions in the body. First and foremost, cysteine is needed for the production of glutathione, one of the most powerful antioxidants in the body. This amino acid also helps slow down the aging process, and some research indicates it may be helpful in preventing dementia and multiple sclerosis.*

Glutamic Acid (CAA): Glutamic acid belongs to the same family of amino acids as L-Glutamine, the most abundant amino acid in the body. Glutamic acid plays a key role in immune function and digestion as well as serving as an important excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain.*

Glycine (NAA): Glycine is the smallest and simplest of the 20+ amino acids found in the human body and the second most abundant found in human proteins and enzymes. Formed in the liver from serine and threonine, glycine plays an important role in the central nervous system and the digestive system and is needed for the production of many important acids including nucleic acid, bile acids, and creatine phosphate.*

Histidine (CAA): Histidine is an aromatic amino acid used to synthesize proteins and affects numerous metabolic reactions in the body. It also regulates the pH value of the blood and helps form the myelin sheath, a protective coating that surrounds all nerve cells and protects them from damage.*

Isoleucine (EAA): The “weaker” and younger brother of leucine, Isoleucine stimulates muscle protein synthesis in the body, though not quite as powerfully as leucine does. However, where isoleucine does stand out is its role in enhancing glucose uptake by skeletal muscle as well as glucose utilization during intense exercise.*

Leucine (EAA): The “king” of amino acids, leucine is most well known for being the most powerful stimulator of the mTOR pathway in the body, which drives muscle protein synthesis.

Lysine (EAA): Lysine is needed for the production of antibodies, and has been found to be beneficial for protecting against the herpes virus. Additionally, lysine is also needed for the production of carnitine – a substance that helps the body use fat for energy. This essential amino acid also aids calcium absorption and is needed for protein synthesis.*

Methionine (EAA): Methionine is vital to the production of L-Cysteine, an incredibly potent antioxidant that combats oxidative stress induced by intense training. This essential amino acid also aids the liver with the digestion of fats and serves as a “building block” for the production of carnitine, adrenaline, choline, and melatonin.*

Phenylalanine (EAA): A precursor to tyrosine, phenylalanine is important in the synthesis of the important neurotransmitters. Due to this amino acid’s role in neurotransmission, phenylalanine has been investigated as a possible treatment for depression and several other illnesses including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and ADD.*

Proline (CAA): Manufactured in the liver from ornithine, glutamine, and glutamate, proline is a secondary amino acid that is one of the primary amino acids used to generate collagen, the fundamental protein of skin, bones, ligaments, and tendons. This amino acid also fortifies the artery walls and protects the endothelium layer, highlighting its importance in maintaining cardiovascular health.*

Serine (NAA): Formed from glycine, serine plays a central role in the proper functioning of the central nervous system and production of antibodies. It is also required for the production of phospholipids used in cell production. To top it off, this amino acid also serves a role in the function of DNA and RNA, fat metabolism, and muscle formation.*

Threonine (EAA): A precursor to glycine and serine, threonine is essential for protein synthesis, and it also supports proper functioning of the central nervous, immune, digestive, and skeletal muscle systems of the body. Threonine is needed to produce antibodies, which bolster the immune system, and the mucus gel layer that covers the digestive tract.*

Tryptophan (EAA): Tryptophan plays a critical crucial role in lifting mood, as the uses this amino acid to generate serotonin, one of the “happy hormones”. Another important function of this essential amino acid is that it supports the synthesis of niacin, an essential B vitamin involved in energy production.

Tyrosine (CAA): Tyrosine is an incredibly important amino acid affecting mood, motivation, and reward. Moreover, tyrosine also plays a role in regulating pain sensitivity, stress, and appetite.*

Valine (EAA): The final component of the trio of BCAAs, valine is the least studied of the lot. As one of the BCAAs, valine helps drive muscle protein synthesis and is essential for glycogen synthesis in muscle tissue as well as energy conversion. On top of that, valine also has a supporting role in the proper cognitive function and immune system function.*


Protein is essential for building muscle, and when you’re looking for one of the best forms of protein to aid you in your fitness journey, there’s no better place to look than whey. It’s packed full of all the amino acids you need to repair, recover, and grow bigger and stronger. Next time you pick up your favorite tub of protein, see what amino acids it lists, and use this guide to help understand all of what goes into this fitness-lifestyle favorite.


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  4. Stanislaus R, Gilg AG, Singh AK, Singh I. N-acetyl-L-cysteine ameliorates the inflammatory disease process in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats. Journal of Autoimmune Diseases. 2005;2:4. doi:10.1186/1740-2557-2-4.
  5. Marmo, E. (1988), L‐glutamic acid as a neurotransmitter in the CNS. Med. Res. Rev., 8: 441-458. doi:10.1002/med.2610080305
  6. Nagana Gowda GA, Shanaiah N, Cooper A, Maluccio M, Raftery D. Bile Acids Conjugation in Human Bile Is Not Random: New Insights from 1H-NMR Spectroscopy at 800 MHz. Lipids. 2009;44(6):527-535. doi:10.1007/s11745-009-3296-4.
  7. Singer, M. and Salpeter, M. M. (1966), The transport of 3H‐l‐histidine through the Schwann and myelin sheath into the axon, including a reevaluation of myelin function. J. Morphol., 120: 281-315. doi:10.1002/jmor.1051200305
  8. Doi M, et al. Isoleucine, a potent plasma glucose-lowering amino acid, stimulates glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes . Biochem Biophys Res Commun. (2003
  9. Gran P, Cameron-Smith D. The actions of exogenous leucine on mTOR signalling and amino acid transporters in human myotubes. BMC Physiology. 2011;11:10. doi:10.1186/1472-6793-11-10.
  10. Griffith RS, Walsh DE, Myrmel KH, Thompson RW, Behforooz A. Success of L-lysine therapy in frequently recurrent herpes simplex infection. Treatment and prophylaxis. Dermatologica. 1987;175(4):183-190.
  11. Brosnan JT, Brosnan ME. The Sulfur-Containing Amino Acids: An Overview. J Nutr. 2006;136(6):1636S-1640.
  12. Beckmann H, Strauss MA, Ludolph E. Dl-phenylalanine in depressed patients: an open study. J Neural Transm. 1977;41(2-3):123-134.
  13. Rath M. (1992). Reducing the risk for cardiovascular disease with nutritional supplements. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine. Volume 7, (pp. 153–162).
  14. Calderini G, Aporti F, Bonetti AC, Zanotti A, Toffano G. Serine phospholipids and aging brain. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1985;192:383-386.
  15. Feng L, Peng Y, Wu P, et al. Threonine Affects Intestinal Function, Protein Synthesis and Gene Expression of TOR in Jian Carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Merrifield D, ed. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(7):e69974. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069974.
  16. Jenkins TA, Nguyen JCD, Polglaze KE, Bertrand PP. Influence of Tryptophan and Serotonin on Mood and Cognition with a Possible Role of the Gut-Brain Axis. Nutrients. 2016;8(1):56. doi:10.3390/nu8010056.
  17. Deijen J and Orlebeke J. (1994). Effect of tyrosine on cognitive function and blood pressure under stress. Brain Research Bulletin. Volume 33, Issue 3, (pp. 319-23).
  18. Jellinger K et al (1978). Brain monoamines in hepatic encephalopathy and other types of metabolic coma. Journal of Neural Transmission Supplementum. Volume 14, (pp. 103-120).

The Complete Guide to Sweat

If you want to know what sweat is, why you sweat, and why sweat smells, you want to read this article.

Following a grueling weightlifting or high-intensity cardio session, there are a few noticeable things:

  • Your Muscles Ache
  • Your Lungs Burn
  • Your Shirt is Drenched in Sweat

Sweat is a sign of accomplishment, a sign of hard work, a sign of commitment. It’s also a sign of nervousness; thus, the expression, “he’s sweating bullets.”

We’ve all experienced the sensation of sweating, and had those unsightly “pit stains” at the most inopportune of moments. But, why do we sweat, what is sweat made of, and why does it stink sometimes?

Ahead, we’ll answer all of those questions and a whole lot more, as we get up close and personal with all things sweat.

Let’s start by answering a very simple question…

What is Sweat?

Sweating, a.k.a. perspiring, is the production of fluids secreted through the skin of animals. As such, sweat is an NBF — normal body function.

It’s composed mostly of water (about 99%) [5], but also contains a host of other compounds and biomarkers including:

  • Minerals (sodium, chloride, potassium)
  • Ammonia
  • Ethanol
  • Cortisol
  • Urea
  • Lactate
  • Neuropeptides
  • Cytokines

Due to this abundance of biomarkers, researchers have begun exploring the use of sweat as a means for continuous bio-monitoring as opposed to other fluids, such as saliva or urine.

While there are several types of sweat glands, sweat is primarily produced via one of two types of sweat glands [2]:

Eccrine glands

Eccrine glands cover most of your body but are found predominantly in on the forehead, palms, armpits, and soles of your feet. Sweat from eccrine glands is watery but doesn’t taste like water due to the presence of salt, protein, ammonia, and urea in it.

Sweat from eccrine glands is clear, odorless, and mostly water, but does contain many of the compounds we just detailed. It has a pH ranging from 4-6.8[6]

Here’s a closeup look at the eccrine gland [4]:

Apocrine glands

Apocrine glands are larger than eccrine glands and localized primarily in the armpits, groin, and breast area. As opposed to eccrine glands, which secrete sweat directly onto the surface of the skin, apocrine glands secrete sweat into the pilary canal of the hair follicle. Since apocrine glands secrete sweat near hair follicles, they generally smell the worst.

As such, sweat produced from these glands is most often associated with body odor.

Apocrine glands are most active during periods of stress and sexual excitement. Interestingly enough, sweat from apocrine glands contains pheromone-like compounds.

It’s also worth mentioning that these glands don’t really start functioning until puberty.

On average, an individual will have between two to four million sweat glands with an average density of 200 sweat glands per square centimeter. However, the amount of sweat you release is actually determined more by fitness level, body weight, gender, genetics, and various environmental factors.

Why Do We Sweat?

The body generates sweat for two big reasons:

  • Thermoregulation
  • As a Response to Stress

Let’s look a little bit deeper into each one of these.


Our bodies crave homeostasis or balance. This applies especially to our core body temperature. While it can tolerate a wide range of external temperatures, the internal temperature of the body has a rather limited range of temperatures it can withstand before activating its countermeasures, i.e. thermoregulatory sweat.

For instance, if core temperature is constantly above 104°F (40°C), cell death and protein denaturation can occur, eventually leading to organ failure. To combat this elevated body temperature, the body will begin sweating to remove heat from the body and help lower core body temperature. FYI, if this cooling mechanism fails (for whatever reason) it can lead to hyperthermia and death. So, when you look at it front that point of view, sweating is actually a very good, life-preserving thing!

In addition to helping cool the body off, sweat also removes waste from the body by secreting sodium salts and nitrogenous waste (such as urea) onto the skin surface.

How does this happen?

It all starts with thermosensitive neurons in the hypothalamus. These neurons regulate sweating in response to “reading” the temperature of the skin and body. Stimulation occurs via activation by acetylcholine (a powerful neurotransmitter), which binds to the eccrine glands muscarinic receptors. [7]

Other factors that can affect thermoregulatory sweating include:

  • Gender
  • Menstrual Cycle
  • Circadian Rhythm
  • Air Humidity
  • Exercise

The primary driver behind thermoregulatory sweating is the sum of internal body temperature and mean (average) skin temperature, such that sweating will commence with internal body temperature exceeds mean skin temperature by a factor of 10. [3,8]

Cooling of the body occurs via evaporation of sweat from the skin surface. This is due to the phenomenon of evaporative cooling, whereby thermal energy is released by the evaporation of water from the skin surface, leading to a reduction in skin and core temperature.


Sweat induced by stress is commonly referred to as “emotional sweating”. In addition to stress, this emotional sweating can also be brought on by pain, fear, and/or anxiety. And, while it can occur all over the body, it’s most obvious on the palms of your hands, soles of your feet and under your arms.

Researchers believe the reason emotional stress manifests itself on the palms and soles is in part due to evolution. When encountering a stressor (i.e. a wild predator), the body would secrete sweat onto the palms and soles to increase friction, thereby preventing slipping when climbing or running. [9]

In contrast to thermoregulatory sweat, emotional sweat doesn’t depend on external temperature, and as such, it will decrease during periods of relaxation and sleep.

Additionally, while thermoregulatory sweat is produced by the eccrine glands, emotional stress is secreted by the apocrine glands. It has a higher pH (6-7.5) compared to eccrine sweat, and it looks a bit different too.

While eccrine (thermoregulatory) sweat is colorless and odorless, apocrine-secreted sweat is oily, cloudy, and viscous. And, just like eccrine sweat, apocrine (stress) sweat contains a bounty of compounds including:

  • Water
  • Protein
  • Fats (lipids)
  • Carbohydrate Waste Material
  • Steroids


While not nearly as prevalent as the thermoregulatory and emotional sweating, there is a third type of sweating that deserves mention — gustatory sweat.

Gustatory sweat is caused by ingestion of certain foods that directly or indirectly trigger a thermal effect. First, eating food increases metabolism, leading to elevated body temperature, which can signal thermoregulatory sweating.

Second, spicy, peppery foods (cayenne, jalapeno, etc.) induce sweating of the forehead, scalp, and neck. This is due to a fiery little substance in spicy foods called capsaicin. It’s the molecule that gives chile peppers their bite and when we consume capsaicin, it binds to heat sensors in our mouth leading to a thermoregulatory response. [5]

Why Does Sweat Stink?

On its own, sweat is odorless. However, the warm, damp conditions of our armpits are the perfect breeding ground for bacteria. When we sweat, it comes into contact with this bacteria on our skin, and the hungry bacteria feast on the sweat, producing an abundance of stinky compounds, which we all know too well as body odor — B.O.

The longer the sweat and bacteria mingle, the worse the smell gets — this is the reason a dirty workout shirt smells 100x worse the next day.

Why Does Sweat Stain Shirts?

Similar to what we discussed above, sweat isn’t the actual cause of your pit stains (i.e. underarm area of shirts turning yellow). Sweat is actually colorless.

However, the yellowing of the armpit region of shirts comes as the result of a chemical reaction between your sweat and the chemicals present in your antiperspirant or clothing. For example, aluminum, the active ingredient in most antiperspirants, mixes with the salt in your sweat and leads to yellow stains.

Sweat Can Make You Happy

We all know the sense of accomplishment and satisfaction that accompanies a tough workout and have the shirt caked in sweat for proof.

But, did you know that sweat (or rather smelling someone else’s sweat) can make you happy?

Apparently, it can, according to some research conducted in 2015.

Chemosignals are chemical signals your body gives off, typically through sweat. Other people can interact or encounter these chemical signals and react to them.

Researchers found that chemosignals emitted from people in a “happy state” resulted in “facial expression and perceptual-processing style indicative of happiness in the receivers of those signals.”[10]

In other words, by being around happy people who are sweating, you can pick up on the “good vibes” and receive a boost in mood and happiness.

For a while, researchers have known that negative feelings could be transferred via chemosignals, but now, it appears you can also improve your mood by simply changing the type of people you are around — and it’s all thanks to sweat!


Sweat gets a bad rap for things like pit stains and body odor, but upon further inspection, sweat isn’t the bad guy — bacteria is!

Sweat is an essential bodily function that helps regulate internal core temperature. It’s triggered by a number of things including temperature, emotional stress, and even the food we eat. Sweat helps cool us off, and it might even be able to lift our mood.

And, if you’re looking to really sweat it out during your training sessions, take a serving of Steel Sweat.

Steel Sweat® is a moderately stimmed pre-workout supplement scientifically formulated to increase thermogenesis, boost metabolism, ramp up fat burning and perspiration. Take it before morning cardio or before your resistance training sessions and get ready to sweat like never before!


  1. Mosher HH (1933). “Simultaneous Study of Constituents of Urine and Perspiration” (PDF). The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 99 (3): 781–790.
  2. Hanukoglu I, Boggula VR, Vaknine H, Sharma S, Kleyman T, Hanukoglu A (January 2017). “Expression of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and CFTR in the human epidermis and epidermal appendages”. Histochemistry and Cell Biology. 147 (6): 733–748. doi:10.1007/s00418-016-1535-3
  3. Jessen, C. Temperature Regulation in Humans and Other Mammals, 193 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin (2001).
  4. Sonner, Z., Wilder, E., Heikenfeld, J., Kasting, G., Beyette, F., Swaile, D., … Naik, R. (2015). The microfluidics of the eccrine sweat gland, including biomarker partitioning, transport, and biosensing implications. Biomicrofluidics, 9(3).
  5. Wilke, K., Martin, A., Terstegen, L., & Biel, S. S. (2007). A short history of sweat gland biology. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 29(3), 169–179.
  6. Draelos, Zoe Diana (2010). “Prevention of Cosmetic Problems”. In Norman, R. A. Preventive Dermatology. Springer. p. 182. doi:10.1007/978-1-84996-021-2_16
  7. Shibasaki, Manabu; Wilson, Thad E.; Crandall, Craig G. (2006). “Neural control and mechanisms of eccrine sweating during heat stress and exercise”. Journal of Applied Physiology. 100 (5): 1692–1701. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01124.2005. ISSN 8750-7587. PMID 16614366
  8. Johnson, J.M. and Proppe, D.W. Cardiovascular adjustments to heat stress. In: Handbook of Physiology. Section 4: Environmental Physiology (Fregly, M.J. and Blatteis, C.M. eds), pp. 215–243. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1996).
  9. Folk Jr, G. Edgar; Semken Jr, A. (1 September 1991). “The evolution of sweat glands”. International Journal of Biometeorology. 35 (3): 180–186. doi:10.1007/BF01049065. ISSN 0020-7128
  10. de Groot, J. H. B., Smeets, M. A. M., Rowson, M. J., Bulsing, P. J., Blonk, C. G., Wilkinson, J. E., & Semin, G. R. (2015). A Sniff of Happiness. Psychological Science, 26(6), 684–700.

Contest Peak Week Nutrition Hacks

The last few days leading up to a physique competition are extremely stressful. You’ve been dieting for weeks on end, lifting multiple times per day every day for weeks Not to mention you’re going crazy with cardio during the hours you’re not lifting. As the content approaches, the end is in sight. You’re nearing the finish line of your contest prep, but those final decisions you make during peak week can be the difference between 1st place and 5th place.

Peak week is the grueling final mountain to climb on your way to supreme muscle definition and a shredded physique. Yet, many first-time competitors completely botch the peak week process (and their physique on stage) by messing up one of the three pillars of peak week.

Perfecting these three pillars should be your primary focus of your contest peak week and will be the ones that make or break you on stage.

Those three pillars are:

  • Carbohydrates
  • Water
  • Sodium/Potassium Balance

Ahead, we’ll address where new competitors go wrong in these areas along with what you should be doing if you want to look your best when you step on stage.

But, before we get into those three very important factors, let’s briefly review what peak week should and shouldn’t be for.

Objectives of Peak Week

The reason many first-time competitors mess up peak week is that they’re not really sure what the whole purpose of peak week is. Fortunately, we’re here to help with that.

Let’s start by discussing what peak week is NOT for. Peak week is NOT for:

  • Losing Excess Body Fat

    By the time peak week hits, you should be stage-ready. Trying to do any last minute dramatic weight loss is pure madness and only increases the stress your body is under in the final days leading up to the competition and may actually make it even harder to lose that fat.

    If you find yourself in this situation, you’re best served to pick another physique show taking place in a couple weeks. No amount of salt, carb, or water manipulation will make up for an excess of body fat.

  • Thinning Your Skin

    For decades, bodybuilders, physique models, and coaches have prescribed eating white fish as a means to “thin” the skin leading up to a competition. Unfortunately, this is a hollow myth that holds no water.

    To have thinner-looking skin, you simply need to lose more body fat and excess water weight. No amount of fish is going to magically thin your skin in the days leading up to a show.

  • Eliminating water weight

    Many competitors and coaches mistakenly believe that missing their peak comes as a result of holding too much water. In an effort to remedy this, they remove water entirely in the days leading up to a show. Nothing could be more wrong that eliminating water during peak week.

    We’ll get into this topic more down below, but just realize that decreasing your body’s water content is not a goal of peak week.

What is peak week for?

Peak week is focused on two main objectives:

  • Maximizing Muscle Definition and Fullness
  • Minimizing Water Retention

Both of these objectives can be accomplished through the savvy manipulation of the three pillars of peak week (carb, water, and electrolytes) that we listed at the beginning of this article.

And with that said, let’s now get into the finer details concerning each of the three pillars of peak week and what you should and shouldn’t be doing with them.

Three Pillars of Peak Week


Carbohydrates can be the physique competitors’ best friend or worst enemy. Carbohydrate loading is a familiar concept in both performance and physique sports. While both types of athletes use the carb load to increase glycogen storage, the physique athlete utilizes the technique to appear bigger and fuller on stage, while the performance athlete needs topped off glycogen for greater endurance, stamina, and power.

While carbohydrates (glucose) can be stored as glycogen, the body can only store so much. If you consume more carbohydrates than you need, and your glycogen stores are topped off, the excess glucose is converted into body fat through a process called de novo lipogenesis. Although this process is inefficient, if there’s no “rooms available” for the incoming glucose to be stored as glycogen, then your body will default to this process.

During peak week, you have been dieting for weeks and training intensely, as such your insulin sensitivity is at an all-time high, meaning your body is primed to store some serious carbohydrates.

But, as the saying goes, “the dose makes the poison”, and nowhere does this ring truer than when it comes to carb loading. Too little carbohydrate and you look flat. Too much and you risk “spillover”, gaining fat and looking “puffy”, but just the right amount and you are well on your well to maximizing muscle fullness.

To identify the “right” amount of carbs is going to be highly variable and different for each person. If you’re used to eating 100 grams of carbs per day, and then all of a sudden slam your system with 600-800 grams of carbohydrates at one time, you’re guaranteed disaster. The average 180-lb physique competitor can store approximately 350-500 grams of glycogen in muscle tissue and another 60-120 grams of glycogen in the liver. [1]

The best way to approach carb loading is by adding some into each meal, and on the day of the show, 6 to 8 hours from prejudging, consume 30-80 grams of carbohydrates every 2 to 3 hours. Smaller competitors will want to stay on the lower end of this range, while larger athletes can lean more towards the top end.

Don’t Forget Fiber

Fiber is important for gut health and proper digestion, and while you don’t want to completely eliminate it during prep week, you don’t want to go overboard with it either. Lest you look gassy, bloated, or distended on stage.

In the final days leading up to the show, you want to consume lower-fiber/bulk whole food carbohydrates along with small amounts of protein (10-20 g) and fat (5-10 g) with each meal.

More About Protein and Fat

During peak week, protein and fat macros should be held steady, making only minor adjustments if absolutely necessary.


Water depletion is common practice among old-school bodybuilders due to a misguided belief that cutting water helps remove residual water. It’s this residual water that is blamed for poor muscle definition, and by dehydrating yourself, there’s no possibility of water remaining under the skin.

While this sounds good in theory, the human body is quite that simple. Not to mention the fact that purposely depriving your body of water can bring with it a host of consequences that you’d rather not have to deal with.

In the previous section, we mentioned that carbohydrates are essential to achieving maximum muscle fullness on stage. What makes carbohydrates so effective in promoting muscle fullness is that when your body stores glucose as glycogen, it also stores water inside your muscles. In fact, research has noted that for every gram of carbohydrate stored in your muscle as glycogen, it also stores up to 4 grams of water too. [2,3]

This fact alone should demonstrate just how vital water is during contest prep and how it and carbohydrates are responsible for maximizing muscle fullness. Yet, in spite of these facts, many coaches and competitors still feel compelled to deplete water during prep week. What these individuals fail to understand is the difference between intracellular and extracellular fluid and the principle of conservation that applies.

Intracellular vs Extracellular Water

The human body is composed of approximately 60% water; roughly ⅔ of this water is stored as intracellular (within cells). The remaining third is extracellular fluid. Extracellular fluid by definition is found outside of your cells, and this is what many competitors and coaches believe is causing the lack of definition and muscle line “blurring”.

So, let’s take a closer look at the breakdown of stored water in the body:

  • Intracellular fluid = 63-65%
  • Extracellular fluid = 35-37%
    • Within the extracellular fluid, 28% of it is interstitial fluid, with the remaining 7-9% of fluid is stored in other extracellular spaces such as plasma or lymph fluid

The primary concern for most athletes is the interstitial fluid — fluid found between cells containing a variety of glucose, salts, and hormones. This is the area of fluid that can negatively impact muscle definition on stage.

So, what can the physique athlete do to reduce levels of interstitial fluid?


Water storage and content is tightly regulated by the body. There is no way in which you can remove water from one compartment of the body without affecting the other. So, if you want to experiment with diuretics or removing water, you will lose extracellular water, but you’ll also lose intracellular water as a result of your body trying to maintain homeostasis. The overall ratio of water balance in your body with remain the same, and all you’ll be left with is a flat physique if you deprive yourself of water.

Remember, your body’s water storage naturally works to your advantage. The vast majority of it is stored within your cells. A negligible amount is stored in the interstitial fluid.

Electrolyte Balance

Sodium and potassium represent the final pieces of the puzzle to perfecting your peak week. What these two essential electrolytes do and how they can impact your final appearance are highly misunderstood by most coaches. In fact, many competitors as well as their coaches drastically adjust sodium and/or potassium intake during the final days leading up to the show.

The truth is, that sodium and potassium manipulation can certainly enhance your on-stage look, but the changes needed aren’t as big as may have been led to believe.

But before we go any further, let’s quickly recap the “give and take” relationship of sodium and potassium in the body and how it affects water balance.

For starters, water moves in and out of cells via the sodium/potassium ion pump (Na+/K+ pump). Sodium is found in high concentrations outside of cells in the interstitial fluid, while potassium is found in high concentrations inside the cells, where it can pull in water.

Now, most people will think that simply cutting sodium and piling on the potassium is a surefire way to load a lot of water into the cell. But again, the body doesn’t work quite that way.

When sodium is reduced or removed from the diet, the kidneys will conserve sodium by reabsorbing more of it back into circulation and excreting less through the urine. A 1990 Harvard study showed this perfectly when it found that reducing dietary sodium to practically zero, blood levels of sodium remained relatively unchanged. Interestingly, by day 6 of the trial, most patients had stopped peeing out sodium altogether![5]

The reason for this phenomenon resides in the hormone aldosterone. When sodium is decreased, aldosterone levels rise.

Why is this important?

Aldosterone is a hormone who is tasked with channeling the re-absorption and retention of water and sodium. As aldosterone levels continue to rise, so too does water retention as well as reabsorption of both sodium and water back into circulation.

Additionally, low dietary sodium can lead to a decrease in blood pressure, which pushes plasma water out of the vascular system and into the surrounding space. Without sufficient pressure in the blood vessels, reabsorbed water heads into the subcutaneous layer, precisely where you don’t want it to be.

And if you need one more reason not to embrace sodium depletion, consider this — reducing dietary sodium stunts activity of a protein called SLGT-1.[6] This protein is responsible for glucose absorption. By reducing sodium, you’re essentially limiting your body’s ability to absorb and store glucose, prohibiting you from achieving maximum muscle fullness.

What happens to the unabsorbed glucose?

It stays in the small intestine, where it attracts water to the area, giving you the bloated, distended look that you absolutely don’t want on the day of the show.

How Much Water and Salt?

Keep water and salt at the same levels you’ve been consuming in the weeks leading up to prep week. That means if you’re used to consuming 1-1.5 gallons of water per day along with 2500 mg of sodium continue doing that in the days leading up to the show. You may want to stop drinking water about an hour or two before going on stage though, just so you don’t feel like you have to pee while on-stage for pre-judging.

What About Supplements?

Again, the same thing for water and salt intake applies to supplements. During peak week, you DO NOT want to make any drastic changes to your daily intake. Doing so adds one other variable to the equation that isn’t really necessary or productive.

That means if you’ve been using a certain pre workout, fat burner, or creatine supplement (such as Pure Steel Creatine Monohydrate) continue doing so. Furthermore, if you aren’t already, you should be supplementing with creatine, even during prep week. This is due to the fact that creatine enhances cellular hydration, meaning it improves water storage in muscle cells. This gives you a fuller, shapelier look to your muscles.


Remember, perfecting peak week only comes through a lot of trial and error. The earlier out from the competition that you can determine how your body reacts the better. We’re all different and so what macro ratio, carb load, or final meal before stepping on stage will be highly dependent on the individual.

That being said, you can use these pointers as a compass to get you going in the right direction for peak week. The fine-tuning is up to you and can only be determined through self-experimentation.


  1. Acheson, K. J., Schutz, Y., Bessard, T., Anantharaman, K., Flatt, J. P., & Jéquier, E. (1988). Glycogen storage capacity and de novo lipogenesis during massive carbohydrate overfeeding in man. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 48(2), 240–247.
  2. King RFGJ, Jones B, O’Hara JP. The availability of water associated with glycogen during dehydration: a reservoir or raindrop? European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2018;118(2):283-290. doi:10.1007/s00421-017-3768-9.
  3. Fernandez-Elias, V. E., Ortega, J. F., Nelson, R. K., & Mora-Rodriguez, R. (2015). Relationship between muscle water and glycogen recovery after prolonged exercise  in the heat in humans. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 115(9), 1919–1926.
  5. Rogacz, S., Williams, G. H., & Hollenberg, N. K. (1990). Time course of enhanced adrenal responsiveness to angiotensin on a low salt diet. Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979), 15(4), 376–380.
  6. Poulsen SB, Fenton RA, Rieg T. Sodium-glucose cotransport. Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension. 2015;24(5):463-469. doi:10.1097/MNH.0000000000000152.

Six Important Nutrients for Female Athletes

If you’re a hard training female athlete, you’re at a higher risk for certain essential nutrient deficiencies. Read on to find out what nutritional pitfalls await the active female athlete.

Physical fitness is more popular than ever these days, with more and more people heading to gyms than ever before. It’s not just men embracing the gym either; females have taken to fitness like never before and are staking a claim in all sports including but not limited to bodybuilding, powerlifting, strength training, CrossFit, etc.

In tandem with this surge has been a rampant increase in the number of studies investigating the nutritional needs of the female athlete.

In this article, we discuss the top six nutrient needs for female athletes, identified by scientific research, coaches, and trainers.

Critical Nutrient Needs for Female Athletes


Generally speaking, females tend to not consume enough protein — including female athletes. Those females that are at an even greater risk are those who adopt vegan or vegetarian diet, as well as those dieting down to “make weight” for their respective sport. [1]

Yet, aside from carbohydrate, protein is the most important nutrient for athletes of all kind. Protein provides the building blocks your muscles need for repair and growth. Without it, recovery is impaired as is your ability to increase muscle and strength.

Current daily protein recommendations for female athletes is 1.2 to 2.0 g/kg body weight (or 0.55-0.91 g/lb. body weight). [1] This number should increase if you are in a cutting phase, so as to preserve lean muscle mass.

“What if I don’t really ever crave protein?”

Not all of us walk around craving chicken, steak or fish during the day, yet we all know in the back of our mind that protein is a must-have nutrient.

For those times when you’re not craving yet another helping of chicken or beef, it helps to have a quality whey protein.

Steel Whey™ provides 27/28 grams of protein per serving (based on flavor), mixes easily, and tastes absolutely delicious. Mix up a serving after training to kick-start the recovery and growth process, mix it into your pre-training bowl of oatmeal, or have it in the evenings to top off your protein macronutrient goals for the day.


We live in a world engulfed in fad diets, and it’s not just the casual consumer that’s duped into following these trendy eating habits — athletes fall prey to these dietary gimmicks all the time.

If you’re training at high-intensity multiple times per week, your body needs carbohydrates.

Yet, with the escalating popularity of low-carb/no-carb diets like paleo, keto, and carnivore diets, athletes are starving their muscles of the optimal training fuel for high-intensity training — carbohydrate (i.e. glucose).

Many will argue that once you become “fat fueled” the need for carbohydrate evaporates, but this isn’t really telling the whole truth. You see for “fast twitch” sports like sprinting, weightlifting, gymnastics, etc., your body uses glycogen (the stored form of carbohydrate) to power your muscles. The reason for this is that the body oxidizes carbohydrate for energy significantly faster than stored body fat.

In other words, if you perform regular bouts of intense exercise, and want to perform at a high level, you want carbohydrate.

Female athletes also need to be made aware of the fact that their monthly cycle affects their carbohydrate utilization and storage.

During the luteal phase, glycogen storage rises while carbohydrate oxidation falls compared to the follicular phase, due to increased estrogen and progesterone levels present in the luteal phase. [2] Due to this phenomenon, female athletes may need to focus more on loading carbohydrate during their follicular phase for the purposes of optimizing glycogen storage. [2]

How much carbohydrate do female athletes need?

As with all athletes, the carbohydrate requirements change based on activity level, training frequency, and type of sport. Research studies have shown the following, regarding carbohydrate needs for females:


Iron deficiency is incredibly common in female athletes due to a trio of factors:

  • Females Tend to Consume Less Iron Through Their Diet
  • Monthly Menstrual Cycles Increase Iron Loss from The Body
  • Regular Exercise Enhances Iron Utilization in The Body [6]

Left unchecked, deficiencies in this essential mineral can lead to reduced muscle function, energy production, and work capacity. [2,5] As such, it’s imperative that female athletes ensure adequate iron intake whether through the diet or supplementation.

How much iron do female athletes need?

Vitamin D

Vitamin D (the sunshine vitamin) is a fat-soluble vitamin that serves a role in hormone production, calcium homeostasis, immune system function, and cell growth differentiation. Additionally, vitamin D also helps prevent premature aging and skin damage.

In other words, vitamin D is really, really important. Yet again, most people (including both male and female athletes) are deficient in this very important vitamin. In fact, research estimates that well over 40% of the population is deficient in vitamin D. [7]

What’s the reason for Vitamin D deficiency?

Simply put, we don’t spend enough time outdoors in the sun.

You see, our bodies synthesize vitamin D from cholesterol when exposed to the sun. But, longer commutes, increased work hours, and staying indoors too much has led to chronic D deficiency on a global level. Coupled with this is the fact that not very many foods are naturally rich in vitamin D either.

Deficiency of Vitamin D is associated with fatigue, poor immune function, bone breaks, poor recovery from exercise, and depressed mood. As such, it’s imperative that athletes address their vitamin D deficiency by spending more time outdoors and/or supplementing with Vitamin D3.

Most multivitamins supply Vitamin D3 these days but depending on the brand, you may or may not be getting sufficient amounts. If you need a little extra vitamin D and want to enhance the quality of your skin at the same time, there’s Steel Beauty™.

Steel Beauty™ provides 25% of the RDI of Vitamin D in each serving.


Porous, fragile bones, better known as osteoporosis, is a major public health concern affecting over 10 million adults. 80% of that 10 million (i.e. 8 million) are women. On top of that 34 million other adults suffer from osteopenia — low bone mass. In case you weren’t aware, osteopenia very frequently precedes osteoporosis.

At the center of osteoporosis is a deficiency of the essential mineral calcium. Your bones store the vast majority (99%) of calcium. When intake is low and calcium is required, your body leeches it from your bones to fulfill its needs. If this happens frequently enough, individuals experience osteopenia, which then leads to osteoporosis. And, with that comes the significantly greater risk of bone fractures and breaks.

But that’s not all, calcium deficiencies also impair blood clotting, muscle contractions, nerve transmission, and protein utilization.

Research has noted that between 72-90% of ALL females fail to consume enough calcium. [2] Sports nutrition researchers highly recommend obtaining calcium through the athlete’s diet as various studies have shown a link between supplemental calcium and adverse kidney and cardiovascular events. [8,9]

Dietary sources of calcium include seeds, yogurt, milk, cheese, leafy greens, and whey protein. Steel Whey™ provides 12% of the RDI of calcium in each serving.

Vitamin K2

Vitamin K2 is another essential fat-soluble vitamin that plays a significant role in bone health. This is due to the fact that your body requires Vitamin K2 for the absorption of calcium. [11]

Vitamin K2 transports calcium from your blood and stores it in your bones. And since females have thinner bones, and less bone mass, than their male counterparts, vitamin K2 becomes increasingly important for female athletes. [10]

Unfortunately, vitamin K2 isn’t found in all that many foods, outside of saying fermented soy, which not too many of us tend to eat on a daily (or even monthly) basis. As such, to help satisfy your vitamin K2 requirements, and ensure calcium storage in the body, it’s suggested to invest in a quality multivitamin.


While the majority of sports nutrition research has been conducted with male subjects, sufficient amounts have been carried out studying the female athlete and identified the areas of most concern. These six nutrients are among those continually highlighted by sports scientists, registered dietitians, and coaches.

If you are a female athlete and looking to ensure optimal performance, recovery, and health, take a close look at your nutrition plan and see if you’re at risk for any of these deficiencies.


  1. Cialdella-Kam L, Kulpins D, Manore MM. Vegetarian, Gluten-Free, and Energy Restricted Diets in Female Athletes. Knechtle B, ed. Sports. 2016;4(4):50. doi:10.3390/sports4040050.
  2. Rossi, K. A. (2017). Nutritional Aspects of the Female Athlete. Clinics in Sports Medicine, 36(4), 627–653.
  3. Manore, M. M. (1999). Nutritional needs of the female athlete. Clinics in Sports Medicine, 18(3), 549–563.
  4. Steinbaugh, M. (1984). Nutritional needs of female athletes. Clinics in Sports Medicine, 3(3), 649–670.
  5. Gabel, K. A. (2006). Special Nutritional Concerns for the Female Athlete. Current Sports Medicine Reports, 5(4). Retrieved from
  6. Alaunyte, I., Stojceska, V., & Plunkett, A. (2015). Iron and the female athlete: a review of dietary treatment methods for improving iron status and exercise performance. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(1), 38.
  7. Forrest, K. Y. Z., & Stuhldreher, W. L. (2011). Prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency in US adults. Nutrition Research (New York, N.Y.), 31(1), 48–54.
  8. Kim BY, Nattiv A. Health considerations in female runners. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 2016;27(1):151–78.
  9. Goolsby MA, Boniquit N. Bone health in athletes: the role of exercise, nutrition, and hormones. Sports Health 2017;9(2):108–17.
  10. Nieves, J. W., Formica, C., Ruffing, J., Zion, M., Garrett, P., Lindsay, R., & Cosman, F. (2005). Males have larger skeletal size and bone mass than females, despite comparable body size. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : The Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, 20(3), 529–535.
  11. Maresz K. Proper Calcium Use: Vitamin K2 as a Promoter of Bone and Cardiovascular Health. Integrative Medicine: A Clinician’s Journal. 2015;14(1):34-39.

How Whey Protein Builds Muscle

Whey protein powder is almost universally the very first supplement a person purchases. What’s not to like about it? Whey protein is:

  • Convenient
  • Effective
  • Affordable
  • Stores Easily
  • Absolutely Delicious

Whey protein powder makes perfect pancakes, whips up easily in a smoothie, and even works wonders when added to a bowl of steel cut oats. And, let’s not forget that whey protein is ideally suited to post-workout when your muscles are thirsting for some amino acids. Quite simply, whey protein is the anything and everything and athletes wants and needs.

But, have you ever given any thought to exactly how using whey protein can build muscle and improve recovery?

Let’s find out how whey protein builds muscle!

What is Whey Protein?

Whey protein is one of the two proteins naturally occurring in milk. In case you were wondering, casein makes up the vast majority (80%) of the protein content in milk. Casein can also be found in a powder, similar to whey protein.

Whey accounts for 20% of the protein in milk. It’s the liquid by-product remaining during the cheese-making process after the milk has curdled and been strained. The liquid whey is then processed and dehydrated, yielding a powder that is then sold to various protein powder manufacturers and supplement companies to flavor, mix, and package for consumers.

How Whey Builds Muscle

Yes, whey protein is far and away the most commonly used supplement (after multivitamins), and it’s recommended by virtually every coach, athlete, and trainer you see. But exactly how and why does whey build muscle?

Here’s a slew of reasons:

Whey complete protein

When discussing proteins, they can either be complete or incomplete. “Complete” proteins contain all of the essential amino acids (EAAs) the body needs to build and repair muscle tissue, grow cells, etc. Examples of complete proteins are animal-based proteins such as beef, chicken, pork, dairy (including whey and casein), and soy.

“Incomplete” proteins are deficient or lacking in one or more of the nine EAAs required to synthesize protein structures. Common examples of incomplete proteins are plant-proteins (beans, grains, vegetables, etc.).

Whey, in particular, is particularly high in the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), the three amino acids that stimulate the mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) pathway in the body, which drives muscle protein synthesis, a.k.a. muscle growth.

One other thing in favor of whey is that it contains a higher ratio of the BCAAs (especially leucine) than casein does. [1] This is another reason whey protein is the post workout shake of choice recommended by coaches and trainers.

High Biological Value

The biological value (BV) of a protein is a measure of how efficiently the human body can utilize the amino acids in a particular protein. If a protein has a very high biological value, your body will better digest, absorb, and use the array of amino acids present in the protein, which means the food you eat is put towards recovery and growth rather than go to waste.

Whey protein has the highest BV of any protein, clocking in at an astounding 104. FYI, that’s even higher than egg protein (BV = 100), which is considered by many as the “ideal” protein for humans. [2]

Basically, whey protein needs to be at the top of your list if you’re looking to pack on mass fast!

Fast Digesting

One of the best qualities about whey protein that makes it ideal for muscle growth is its incredibly fast digestion rate. [3] Following a grueling workout, your muscles are starving for amino acids which they’re used to repair, recovery, and grow. Compared to a protein like casein, which can take up to 8 hours to digest, whey protein is processed, broken down, and absorbed by the body much more rapidly, meaning that the essential amino acids your muscles crave following exercise get there faster, yielding faster recovery, repair, and growth. The reason whey protein is so quickly digested by your body is that whey protein is considerably more soluble in the acidic environment of your stomach than casein and other various proteins, leading to quicker digestion and absorption. [4]

Increases Muscle Growth

Many people are under the belief that resistance-training builds muscle. Unfortunately, intense exercise, including weight lifting, actually breaks down muscle tissue, it doesn’t build it. Muscle repair, recovery, and growth actually occurs after your workout, when your resting and sleeping.

Immediately following training, and for a few hours following, your muscles are highly sensitized to rapidly absorb and utilize anything and everything you give it. This is why so many people go out for “epic cheat meals” full of burgers, fries, pizza, etc. After workouts, your metabolism is in overdrive trying to repair tissue that was broken down, and muscle insulin sensitivity is heightened, meaning they’re “primed” to absorb the food you eat, especially protein and carbohydrates.

Research has shown drinking whey protein in combination with resistance training enhanced muscle building. [5] Here’s the really interesting thing — no matter if subjects trained with lighter weights or heavier weights, both experienced the muscle-building benefits of whey protein, even if the whey protein wasn’t consumed until 24 hours after exercise!

Numerous other studies have clearly shown that consuming whey protein improves strength, performance, and overall body composition. [6,7,8]

Basically, if you want to build muscle, whey protein is a MUST!

Reduces Fat Gain

Whey protein shakes aren’t only for muscle growth, they’re also ideal for recomposing or dropping fat. Research from 2015 sought to examine the effects of whey protein with or without carbohydrates on training adaptations in 86 active men. [9]

Over the course of 12 weeks of resistance training, immediately following a total body workout men consumed either:

  • Whey Protein Alone
  • Whey Protein + Carbohydrates
  • Only Carbohydrates

While all three groups experienced increases in muscle size, strength, and fat-free mass, only the group supplementing with whey protein experienced abdominal fat loss. Based on the outcome of the study, researchers concluded:

“Whey proteins may increase abdominal fat loss and relative fat-free mass adaptations in response to resistance training when compared to fast-acting carbohydrates.” [9]

What Whey is for You?

While it might seem pretty easy to just stop by your local supplement shop and grab a tub of whey protein, it’s not that simple.

You see, there’s not just one type of whey protein. In fact, you’ll come across three different types of whey protein used in the various protein powders on the shelf. Each type is just a bit different than the other types, and which one you select will depend on how much budget you have to work with and how sensitive you are or aren’t to lactose, the milk sugar present in milk.

With all of that in mind, here are the differences between the different types of whey protein:

Whey Protein Concentrate

Whey Protein Concentrate (WPC) contains the most calories, fat, and carbohydrates of any form of whey. It can contain anywhere between 35-80% whey protein, with the remainder being made of carbohydrates and fat.

Whey protein concentrate is the most cost-effective option and is ideal for those who don’t have any digestion issues with dairy. This form of whey also offers the best taste, consistency, and “mouthfeel” of the different kind of whey proteins, due to the increased carb and fat count. If you’re not in contest prep and can afford more carbs and fats in your diet, whey concentrate is the whey to go.

Ideally, you’d like to find a whey concentrate with 80% protein content, as it offers the most protein per serving of the available concentrates. Unfortunately, most companies do not list the grade of whey protein, notated as WPC35, WPC60, WPC80, etc. Something to be on the lookout for. SteelFit® Steel Whey uses the highest form of whey protein concentrate, Micro-Filtered WPC80.

Whey Protein Isolate

Whey Protein Isolate (WPI) is a more refined and protein-heavy version of whey compared to whey concentrate. Isolates go through additional processing and filtration (cross-flow microfiltration (CFM) or ion-exchange chromatography) to remove more of the carbs, lactose, and fat present in concentrate. The resulting powder contains at least 90% protein with minimal lactose, fat, or carbs, making it a solid option for those with sensitive stomachs.

The “downside” to isolates compared to concentrate powders is that they tend to cost more money and don’t have the same consistency, texture, or “mouthfeel” as concentrates (due to the reduced carb/fat content). Additionally, due to the increased processing, isolates are lacking some of the beneficial micronutrients and immunoglobulins found in concentrates.

Whey Protein Hydrolysate

Also known as hydrolyzed whey, whey protein hydrolysate is the most refined form of whey protein. This is the most expensive form of whey and lacks the flavor, texture, and consistency of concentrates or isolates.

Hydrolyzed whey is made by reacting the whey protein powder with a variety of enzymes and chemicals that pre-digest (hydrolyze) the protein structures in whey. Hydrolysis breaks apart the long chains of protein in whey into smaller, faster-digesting proteins that digesting incredibly fast. The catch here is that the hydrolysis process often leaves the powder tasting somewhat chemically or “off”.

Unless you’re extremely lactose intolerant, there’s really no added benefit to using hydrolyzed whey over concentrate or isolate.

Whey Protein Blends

In addition to finding each kind of powder sold separately at the store, you’ll also encounter whey protein blends that use a mixture of two or even all three forms of whey protein and may also use other forms of protein in there as well, such as egg protein, casein, milk protein, soy protein, brown rice, or quinoa.

Using a mix of proteins allows for a mix of digestion rates, which helps keep you fuller longer, as well as a steady and constant release of amino acids into the bloodstream, supporting recovery and growth. Plus, using a mix of proteins allows you to maximize protein content per scoop while also retaining the taste, texture, and consistency achieved with concentrates.

Protein blends are a great balance of cost, protein content, taste, and texture.

Build More Muscle with Whey Protein

Whey protein is a staple supplement for just about every athlete, and for good reason, it works! Not only is it effective, but it also tastes great and is incredibly affordable. It requires no refrigeration, which means you can buy a tub and leave it in your car, so you always have the perfect post-workout recovery shake ready and raring to go!

Building muscle, burning fat, or craving a healthy, delicious snack, whey protein is the way to go!


  1. Witard OC, Wardle SL, Macnaughton LS, Hodgson AB, Tipton KD. Protein Considerations for Optimising Skeletal Muscle Mass in Healthy Young and Older Adults. Nutrients. 2016;8(4):181. doi:10.3390/nu8040181.
  2. Hoffman JR, Falvo MJ. Protein – Which is Best? Journal of Sports Science & Medicine. 2004;3(3):118-130.
  3. Jäger R, Dudeck JE, Joy JM, et al. Comparison of rice and whey protein isolate digestion rate and amino acid absorption. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2013;10(Suppl 1):P12. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-10-S1-P12.
  4. Boirie Y, Dangin M, Gachon P, Vasson M-P, Maubois J-L, Beaufrère B. Slow and fast dietary proteins differently modulate postprandial protein accretion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1997;94(26):14930-14935.
  5. Nicholas A. Burd, Daniel W. D. West, Daniel R. Moore, Philip J. Atherton, Aaron W. Staples, Todd Prior, Jason E. Tang, Michael J. Rennie, Steven K. Baker, Stuart M. Phillips; Enhanced Amino Acid Sensitivity of Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis Persists for up to 24 h after Resistance Exercise in Young Men, The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 141, Issue 4, 1 April 2011, Pages 568–573,
  6. Miller PE, Alexander DD, Perez V. Effects of whey protein and resistance exercise on body composition: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Am Coll Nutr. 2014;33(2):163-175. doi:10.1080/07315724.2013.875365.
  7. Bell KE, Snijders T, Zulyniak M, et al. A whey protein-based multi-ingredient nutritional supplement stimulates gains in lean body mass and strength in healthy older men: A randomized controlled trial. Fisher G, ed. PLoS ONE. 2017;12(7):e0181387. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0181387.
  8. Cribb PJ, Williams AD, Carey MF, Hayes A. The effect of whey isolate and resistance training on strength, body composition, and plasma glutamine. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2006;16(5):494-509.
  9. Hulmi JJ, Laakso M, Mero AA, Häkkinen K, Ahtiainen JP, Peltonen H. The effects of whey protein with or without carbohydrates on resistance training adaptations. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015;12(1):48. doi:10.1186/s12970-015-0109-4.

What is cGMP and Why It Important?

At SteelFit® we create the highest quality, most effective, best-tasting products on the market. Our products are formulated for optimum results both onstage and off and are designed for all health and wellness enthusiasts, from fitness competitors to weekend warriors and everyone in-between.

Physician formulated with clinical doses of the most cutting edge, research validated, patented ingredients all our products are closely analyzed by our in-house quality control team along with our board-certified physician and his team at VPR Sciences for safety, quality and efficacy.

SteelFit® products are produced in a state-of-the-art facility located in South Florida. Our manufacturing site is NSF-cGMP certified and utilizes the latest measuring, blending, quality control and packaging technologies to help deliver the finest quality sports nutrition supplements to our customers. If it’s on the label, it’s in the product; with all product batches lab-assayed for purity.

What exactly is cGMP and why is it important? Keep reading to find out more.

What is cGMP?

cGMP stands for Current Good Manufacturing Practices. They are a set of regulations and guidelines created by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the governing body in the United States overseeing food, drug, and cosmetic product safety. cGMPs detail the processes to create systems that ensure proper design, monitoring, and control of manufacturing processes and their facilities.

Adherence to the cGMP regulations helps ensure quality, potency, purity, and identity of products (i.e. supplements) by requiring that manufacturers sufficiently regulate manufacturing operations. Part of abiding by cGMP includes establishing robust QA/QC management systems, procuring high-quality raw materials, creating comprehensive and detailed operating procedures, detecting and investigating observed quality deviations, and maintaining reliable testing laboratories. The elaborate system of controls cGMP sets forth, assuming it’s actually implemented all the way, helps prevent occurrences of errors, deviations, “mix-ups”, or contamination in drugs and dietary supplements. In other words, cGMP helps certify that what the bottle claims on the label is actually in it.

cGMP requirements were first established in 1963 by the United States Congress following the near-sale of thalidomide in the United States after it had led to over 10,000 birth defects and infant deformities in Europe.

The cGMP requirements were originally designed to be flexible, so as to allow individual manufacturers to decide how they wanted to implement the guidelines and regulations in their respective facilities. The upside to this flexibility is that companies may adopt newer, more advanced technologies, to consistently strive to achieve the highest quality possible. Remember, the “c” in cGMP stands for current, so manufacturers should strive to always use the most accurate, precise, and reliable equipment of the times.

Why is cGMP important?

The reason cGMP is so important is that you really have no way to detect through sight, smell, or touch what is in your supplements, if they will work, or if they are even safe for consumption. Basically, you have no way of knowing or determining if the product you’re taking actually contains what it claims to include.

To help assure that what you’re taking is what it’s supposed to be, cGMP requires testing of a product, but not every single product in every single batch is tested. Typically, testing is conducted only on a small sample of a given batch (e.g. testing 50 bottles in a 2,000-bottle batch of pre-workout).

Why is this done?

Well, products tested in the sample are destroyed following testing. The remainder is held aside to be sold to consumers, assuming everything from the sample passes spec. This ultimately saves money and allows products to be sold at a relatively reasonable price — testing is very, VERY expensive.

This is why it’s so critical that drugs, dietary supplements, etc. are produced in accordance with cGMP regulations. Following cGMP assures the utmost quality of your products by designing quality and precision in every step of the manufacturing process. By using the most up to date equipment, well-maintained facilities, reliable and reproducible processes, and thoroughly trained employees, manufacturers help ensure your products are effective, and, more importantly, SAFE!

In the end, the cGMP regulations help reduce the number of occurrences of product recalls, hazardous effects and inevitable lawsuits that go hand-in-hand with defective, poorly manufactured products.

How to Determine if a Company is Following cGMP?

The U.S. FDA inspects pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities all over the world, including facilities that produce bulk, raw materials, as well as the ones that manufacture full-fledged, finished products. Facility inspections follow a standard procedure, with an extensively trained staff conducting the inspection.

Additionally, the FDA uses reports from the public and the pharmaceutical industry itself to be alerted to possibly defective products. Upon receiving a report, the FDA will identify which facilities need to be investigated or inspected to ensure full compliance with the cGMP regulations.

How does cGMP differ from other Testing Procedures?

cGMP isn’t the only quality assurance/quality control practice available to manufacturers. Quite the opposite, in fact, as there are a number of different testing and quality measures manufacturers can choose from.

The reason cGMP is a cut above other is that cGMP is mandatory for manufacturers of those particular products covered in the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. Other quality assurance organization, such as the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), are not mandatory, which means manufacturers aren’t required to follow them or enact their procedures. But, most of the guidelines and regulations are the same, more or less across the different organizations. The only differences are in the allowable thresholds in the various quality tests that products go through. cGMP includes ALL of the guidelines detailing good laboratory practice, process validation, comprehensive corrective and prevent action (CAPAs), vendor qualification, and design/management reviews.

If manufacturers fail to abide by cGMP, it can bring about immediate sanctions for the industry in questions, while this isn’t necessarily the case with ISO and other quality control associations.

Are non-cGMP supplements safe to use?

Until now, we’ve highlighted the importance of cGMP, and why you should seek out products made by companies the following cGMP, but what about those “other” companies, who either don’t follow cGMP or adopt one of the other quality control standards?

Are those products safe, or should they be avoided at all costs?

Well, if a company is not utilizing the cGMP regulations, any product it makes is technically considered “adulterated” under the law. This means that the product in question was NOT manufactured in accordance with cGMP, but that doesn’t necessarily mean something is wrong with the product.

If you happen to be one of those consumers who is using supplements, pharmaceuticals, or other products made by a company not following cGMP, the FDA typically advises that you consult your doctor or prescribing physician before changing or stopping the use of the product.

Supplements manufactured in violation of cGMP may still meet its labeled specifications, and the risk that it’s ineffective, unsafe, or hazardous could be minimal, but you never can know for certain. Essentially, this means the advice of the FDA will be on a case by case basis when it comes to products not complying with cGMP and whether or not you should continue using them.

Actions taken against companies with poor cGMP practices are frequently carried out to prevent the creation and distribution of unsafe or ineffective drugs. Only in rare cases, does the FDA outright halt the distribution or manufacturing of products in violation of cGMP.


cGMP provides a “guardian angel” of sorts for consumers, especially in the “wild, wild west” arena that is the supplement industry. Supporting only those companies that employ cGMP (like SteelFit®), helps ensure your safety when using any sports nutrition supplement and serves as notice to those companies not following cGMP that their non-compliance of the regulations will not be supported. After all, where you spend your hard-earned money is the most effective action you can take.


  2. Velagaleti R, Burns PK, Gill M, Prothro J. Impact of current good manufacturing practices and emission regulations and guidances on the discharge of pharmaceutical chemicals into the environment from manufacturing, use, and disposal. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2002;110(3):213-220.

Creatine 101: What It Is and What It Does

Creatine is the undisputed king of sports nutrition supplements, but how does it work and what are the benefits of this best-selling pre-workout ingredient?

Over the past 20 years, sports nutrition has escalated by leaps and bounds, and in that time, athletes, bodybuilders, and casual gym rats have been inundated by all sorts of shiny new herbal extracts, synthetic ergogenics, and isolated amino acids that promise to deliver life-changing results. Yet, few of these compounds have ever delivered on the hype.

There has been a compound, however, that’s been a staple of lifters and athletes for decades prior to the explosion in popularity of sports nutrition supplements. That ingredient is none other than creatine monohydrate.

Most of you reading this have heard of creatine, and you’ve probably even experienced some of the benefits of creatine supplementation for yourself, such as enhances lean mass gains or better athletic performance.

But, how does creatine work? Is creatine safe for women? And, how much creatine should I take?

We’ve got all these questions answered and a whole lot more in store as we take an in-depth look at creatine — the king of sports supplements.

What is Creatine?

Creatine is a substance naturally produced in the body from the amino acids glycine, arginine, and methionine. [1,2] Chemically, creatine is known by the name α-methyl guanidine-acetic acid, but seeing as this isn’t a biochemistry course, we’ll leave it at just plain old creatine.

Creatine is primarily stored (~95%) in your skeletal muscles in the form of phosphocreatine, and the remaining 5% is stored in the kidneys, liver, and brain. [1] It’s also found in a number of other foods in our diet, especially red meat.

Now, the amount of creatine each of us stores in our body is going to depend on a few factors, including:

  • Exercise
  • Amount of Lean Muscle Mass
  • Levels of Anabolic Hormones such as IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1) and Testosterone
  • Meat Consumption

What Does Creatine Do?

Following ingestion, creatine binds to a molecule of phosphate to form phosphocreatine or creatine phosphate.

Why is this important?

Whenever you ingest nutrients (whole foods, protein powder, BCAAs, etc.), your digestive system breaks down these nutrients to get energy so that it can power all of the other chemical and physiological processes that go on in the body.

These processes require energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). ATP also serves as the primary fuel for your muscles during high-intensity exercise like resistance training or sprinting.

The way ATP provides energy is by donating one of its three phosphate groups (remember ATP stands for adenosine TRI-phosphate, meaning it has three phosphates attached to one molecule of adenosine).

After donating its phosphate group, ATP now becomes ADP (adenosine DI-phosphate), meaning it has two phosphates instead of three.[1] Now, the body can readily use ATP for energy production, but it’s not so fond of ADP for generating energy. So, your body reserves this ADP molecule and saves it until another phosphate is freed up and it can be recycled into ATP.

Now, here’s where creatine enters the picture.

As we mentioned above, creatine is stored in the body as phospho-creatine, meaning it has an extra phosphate molecule to donate. Creatine, being the noble fellow that it is, sacrifices its phosphate group for the good of your body, donating it to ADP and transforming the seemingly useless ADP into the energy-producing powerhouse that is ATP.

Therefore, the primary benefit of creatine resides in its ability to rapidly regenerate ATP, which translates to a number of performance and physique benefits that we’ll discuss in more detail now!

Benefits of Creatine

Improves ATP Production

As we just mentioned, the primary benefit of ATP comes from its ability to rapidly replenish ATP stores in the body.

ATP serves as the “cellular currency” of energy production in the body, meaning that once your ATP stores are empty, your body has to start breaking down glycogen or pulling in glucose and fats from the bloodstream to power your muscles during training. So, the more ATP you have, the longer you can train before succumbing to fatigue, which leads to greater gains in size, strength, and performance. [1,2] 

Muscle Builder

Creatine has been extensive studies and shown time after time to improve lean body mass (a.k.a. Muscle mass) as well as performance during intense training. [4,5] Studies note that supplementing with creatine monohydrate while performance resistance training increase muscle cell nuclei concentration, which promotes the greater growth of lean muscle. [6]

Other research notes that when creatine and weight lifting are combined, it increases fat-free mass (i.e. muscle), muscle morphology, and physical performance. [7]

Part of this is due to creatine’s ability to help you grind out more reps (due to better energy production), but creatine also helps stunt myostatin production. [8] In case you weren’t aware, myostatin is a devious little protein that puts the brakes on muscle growth in the body. By inhibiting it, creatine helps promote greater muscle cell growth and differentiation.

Strength Booster

One of the truly exceptional things about creatine is that not only does it help muscles to grow bigger, it also helps them become stronger, too. Research has shown that weightlifters using creatine increased their one-rep max on bench press of 43%, compared to those who did not use creatine while training. [9,10]

Hydration Support

We’ve spent the majority of this article discussing the primary function of creatine, in regards to its ability to enhance ATP regeneration in the body, but it also serves another very important role in regards to health and performance.

Creatine monohydrate also functions as a natural osmolyte, that helps increase the water content within muscle cells. [15] Because of this cell-hydrating effect, creatine increases cell volume, which has a multitude of benefits including better stamina, bigger “water” pumps, and muscle growth.

Brain Booster

Up top, we mentioned that the majority of creatine is stored in the brain, but a small percentage is also stored in your brain. As it turns out, creatine supplementation also imparts some brain gains as well, especially for vegans and vegetarians.

Research notes that when adult vegetarians supplemented with creatine, they experienced better working memory and intelligence. The reason vegetarians were used for the study was that they tend to have low levels of endogenous creatine due to their low meat intake. [12,13]

But that’s not all…

Creatine has also been shown to improve mental performance following 36 hours of sleep deprivation [14], making this a great supplement to use if you’re one who doesn’t get adequate amounts of sleep each night.


Creatine not only helps our brains to function at a higher level, but it may also protect us from certain neurological diseases as well. Supplemental creatine can act as a substrate for creatine kinase, which may increase phosphocreatine and protect against ATP depletion, which has been documented to exert neuroprotective benefits. [17]

Other studies note that supplementing with creatine can improve quality of life and reduce symptoms in individuals with cognitive dysfunction. [16] Furthermore, creatine supplementation has been documented to prevent up to 90% of the decline in dopamine levels in animals. [17]

You may be asking, “why is that important?”

Well, chronically falling levels of dopamine production are a tell-tale sign of Parkinson’s disease.

Additional research has noted that when patients with Parkinson’s were given creatine it reduced their decline in cognitive function and increased their strength. [18,19]

Improves Symptoms of Depression

Consuming creatine daily has been noted to lessen symptoms of depression in women, including ones who didn’t respond to SSRI prescriptions (the “standard” treatment for depression). [20]

Additional studies have documented that creatine supplementation is beneficial for the treatment of a number of other diseases including [21,22,23]: 

  • Alzheimer’s
  • Ischemic Stroke
  • Huntington’s Disease
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
  • Epilepsy
  • Brain or Spinal Cord Injuries

Combats Fatigue

We’ve mentioned previously that creatine improves stamina and endurance via improve ATP production, but it also helps you last longer during your workouts due to its unique ability to reduce neuromuscular fatigue and perceived fatigue when training.[24,25]

Creatine also has been shown to boost mood following sleep deprivation or psychologically-intensive tasks. [26]

Improves Injury Recovery Rate

Not only does creatine improve your performance on the field, it also helps you get back there following an injury. Research conducted in healthy subjects has shown that creatine supplementation significantly improves recovery of knee extensor muscle function after injury. [33]

Heart Helper

In addition to its role in muscle building, creatine also helps fortify your cardiovascular system as well, protecting the heart against stress and improving its ability to repair. [29]

Creatine production also helps reduce homocysteine levels, which if you weren’t aware, elevated levels of homocysteine are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Further research has shown that when creatine is supplemented at a dose of 20 grams per day, it lowers cholesterol. [30]

Supports Skeletal System

Creatine enhances osteoblast formation, which increases bone formation and bone repair. [31] Additional research in older women with osteoarthritis has noted that creatine supplementation helps reduce pain associated with the disorder. [32]

Steadies Blood Sugar

We’re still not done with the benefits of creatine yet!

As you well know, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome are two of the most common chronic diseases affecting our population these days. At the core of these two diseases is a combination of chronically elevated blood sugar levels and insulin resistance.

As it turns out, creatine might be an unsung hero of sorts for diabetics. Research notes that supplementing with creatine can significantly reduce blood sugar measurements during a glucose tolerance test in healthy men performing aerobic exercise. [27]

A 2016 systematic review also confirmed these findings when it concluded that creatine is useful for controlling blood glucose when combined with exercise. [28]

Beneficial for Expectant Mothers

Studies involving pregnant women have noted that supplementing with creatine can benefit baby development in the instances of oxygen deprivation or premature birth. [34]

Potential Testosterone Booster

The final benefit of creatine is more of an “outlier” of sorts, as it’s never really been thoroughly investigated, but still, warrant mentioning.

In addition to all of the muscle and performance benefits mentioned prior, creatine may also boost the most anabolic hormone of all — testosterone.

Research using very high doses of creatine (100mg/kg) noted that it successfully increased testosterone levels. [11]

How much is that for the average man?

For the average 175lb male, you’d need around 8 grams of creatine to get the potential testosterone boosting benefits of this all-time muscle builder.

Speaking of dosing…

How Much Creatine Should I Take?

All sorts of dosing and loading protocols have been used with creatine studies over the years.

Some protocols call for loading up to 20 grams per day (divided into 4-5 doses) for 3-4 days to accelerate the rate of saturation, but for the average lifter looking to experience all that creatine has to offer, a standard dose of 5 grams per day every day of creatine monohydrate is recommended.

When to Take Creatine

The great thing about creatine, unlike other supplements, is that you really can take it any time of day. You see, you start to experience the benefits of creatine once your muscles are saturated with it. It doesn’t offer an acute benefit, like what caffeine or citrulline malate does.

Therefore, you can take your creatine pre-workout, post workout, intra-workout, or any other time of day. It doesn’t really matter so long as you get your 5 grams in every day.

However, there can be an argument made for an “optimal” time to take creatine is the post-workout period, when insulin sensitivity is highest, meaning it will be rapidly taken up and stored in your muscles. But again, so long as you’re taking in your 5 grams of creatine monohydrate every day, you will be fine.


Creatine monohydrate has stood the test of time as the de facto king of the supplement world. It’s proven time and time again to enhance lean mass, strength, power, and performance. Creatine also comes with a drove of other benefits for your brain and heart, too.

When you add it all together, creatine supplementation is really a no-brainer and should be a part of every fitness enthusiasts stack, young or old, male or female.


  1. Persky AM, Brazeau GA. Clinical Pharmacology of the Dietary Supplement Creatine Monohydrate. Pharmacol Rev. 2001;53(2):161 LP-176.
  2. Bird SP. Creatine Supplementation and Exercise Performance: A Brief Review. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine. 2003;2(4):123-132.
  3. The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica. (2016, August 19). Adenosine triphosphate. Retrieved October 17, 2017, from
  4. Branch JD. Effect of creatine supplementation on body composition and performance: a meta-analysis. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003;13(2):198-226.
  5. Parise G, Mihic S, MacLennan D, Yarasheski KE, Tarnopolsky MA. Effects of acute creatine monohydrate supplementation on leucine kinetics and mixed-muscle protein synthesis. J Appl Physiol. 2001;91(3):1041-1047. doi:10.1152/jappl.2001.91.3.1041.
  6. Olsen S, Aagaard P, Kadi F, et al. Creatine supplementation augments the increase in satellite cell and myonuclei number in human skeletal muscle induced by strength training. The Journal of Physiology. 2006;573(Pt 2):525-534. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2006.107359.
  7. Volek JS, Duncan ND, Mazzetti SA, et al. Performance and muscle fiber adaptations to creatine supplementation and heavy resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999;31(8):1147-1156.
  8. Saremi A, Gharakhanloo R, Sharghi S, Gharaati MR, Larijani B, Omidfar K. Effects of oral creatine and resistance training on serum myostatin and GASP-1. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;317(1-2):25-30. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2009.12.019.
  9. Earnest CP, Snell PG, Rodriguez R, Almada AL, Mitchell TL. The effect of creatine monohydrate ingestion on anaerobic power indices, muscular strength and body composition. Acta Physiol Scand. 1995;153(2):207-209. doi:10.1111/j.1748-1716.1995.tb09854.x.
  10. Rawson ES, Volek JS. Effects of creatine supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and weightlifting performance. J strength Cond Res. 2003;17(4):822-831.
  11. Cook CJ, Crewther BT, Kilduff LP, Drawer S, Gaviglio CM. Skill execution and sleep deprivation: effects of acute caffeine or creatine supplementation – a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2011;8:2. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-8-2.
  12. Rae C, Digney AL, McEwan SR, Bates TC. Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 2003;270(1529):2147-2150. doi:10.1098/rspb.2003.2492.
  13. Benton D, Donohoe R. The influence of creatine supplementation on the cognitive functioning of vegetarians and omnivores. Br J Nutr. 2011;105(7):1100-1105. doi:10.1017/S0007114510004733.
  14. McMorris T, Harris RC, Howard AN, et al. Creatine supplementation, sleep deprivation, cortisol, melatonin and behavior. Physiol Behav. 2007;90(1):21-28. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2006.08.024.
  15. Burg MB, Ferraris JD. Intracellular Organic Osmolytes: Function and Regulation. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2008;283(12):7309-7313. doi:10.1074/jbc.R700042200.
  16. Rawson ES, Venezia AC. Use of creatine in the elderly and evidence for effects on cognitive function in  young and old. Amino Acids. 2011;40(5):1349-1362. doi:10.1007/s00726-011-0855-9.
  17. Matthews RT, Ferrante RJ, Klivenyi P, et al. Creatine and cyclocreatine attenuate MPTP neurotoxicity. Exp Neurol. 1999;157(1):142-149. doi:10.1006/exnr.1999.7049.
  18. Li Z, Wang P, Yu Z, et al. The effect of creatine and coenzyme q10 combination therapy on mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease. Eur Neurol. 2015;73(3-4):205-211. doi:10.1159/000377676.
  19. Hass CJ, Collins MA, Juncos JL. Resistance training with creatine monohydrate improves upper-body strength in patients with Parkinson disease: a randomized trial. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2007;21(2):107-115. doi:10.1177/1545968306293449.
  20. Kondo DG, Sung Y-H, Hellem TL, et al. Open-label adjunctive creatine for female adolescents with SSRI-resistant major depressive disorder: A 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Journal of affective disorders. 2011;135(0):354-361. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2011.07.010.
  21. Bürklen TS, Schlattner U, Homayouni R, et al. The Creatine Kinase/Creatine Connection to Alzheimer’s Disease: CK Inactivation, APP-CK Complexes, and Focal Creatine Deposits. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology. 2006;2006:35936. doi:10.1155/JBB/2006/35936.
  22. Prass K, Royl G, Lindauer U, et al. Improved reperfusion and neuroprotection by creatine in a mouse model of stroke. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2007;27(3):452-459. doi:10.1038/sj.jcbfm.9600351.
  23. Rambo LM, Ribeiro LR, Oliveira MS, et al. Additive anticonvulsant effects of creatine supplementation and physical exercise against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. Neurochem Int. 2009;55(5):333-340. doi:10.1016/j.neuint.2009.04.007.
  24. Smith AE, Walter AA, Herda TJ, et al. Effects of creatine loading on electromyographic fatigue threshold during cycle ergometry in college-aged women. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2007;4:20. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-4-20.
  25. Hadjicharalambous M, Kilduff LP, Pitsiladis YP. Brain serotonin and dopamine modulators, perceptual responses and endurance performance during exercise in the heat following creatine supplementation. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2008;5:14. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-5-14.
  26. McMorris T, Harris RC, Swain J, et al. Effect of creatine supplementation and sleep deprivation, with mild exercise, on  cognitive and psychomotor performance, mood state, and plasma concentrations of catecholamines and cortisol. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006;185(1):93-103. doi:10.1007/s00213-005-0269-z.
  27. Gualano B, Novaes RB, Artioli GG, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity  in sedentary healthy males undergoing aerobic training. Amino Acids. 2008;34(2):245-250. doi:10.1007/s00726-007-0508-1.
  28. Pinto CL, Botelho PB, Pimentel GD, Campos-Ferraz PL, Mota JF. Creatine supplementation and glycemic control: a systematic review. Amino Acids. 2016;48(9):2103-2129. doi:10.1007/s00726-016-2277-1.
  29. Spindler M, Meyer K, Stromer H, et al. Creatine kinase-deficient hearts exhibit increased susceptibility to ischemia-reperfusion injury and impaired calcium homeostasis. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004;287(3):H1039-45. doi:10.1152/ajpheart.01016.2003.
  30. Earnest CP, Almada AL, Mitchell TL. High-performance capillary electrophoresis-pure creatine monohydrate reduces blood lipids in men and women. Clin Sci (Lond). 1996;91(1):113-118.
  31. Gerber I, ap Gwynn I, Alini M, Wallimann T. Stimulatory effects of creatine on metabolic activity, differentiation and mineralization of primary osteoblast-like cells in monolayer and micromass cell cultures. Eur Cell Mater. 2005;10:8-22.
  32. Neves MJ, Gualano B, Roschel H, et al. Beneficial effect of creatine supplementation in knee osteoarthritis. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(8):1538-1543. doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182118592.
  33. Cooke MB, Rybalka E, Williams AD, Cribb PJ, Hayes A. Creatine supplementation enhances muscle force recovery after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2009;6:13. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-6-13.
  34. Dickinson H, Ellery S, Ireland Z, LaRosa D, Snow R, Walker DW. Creatine supplementation during pregnancy: summary of experimental studies suggesting a treatment to improve fetal and neonatal morbidity and reduce mortality in high-risk human pregnancy. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2014;14:150. doi:10.1186/1471-2393-14-150.
  35. Jäger, Ralf; Analysis of the Efficacy, Safety, and Regulatory Status of Novel Forms of Creatine. Amino Acids 40.5 (2011): 1369-383.
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Training Fasted: Pros and Cons

If you want to know the pros and cons of training fasted and whether or not it is superior for losing fat or building muscle, you want to read this article.

For decades, if you wanted to lose weight and get rid of that unsightly body fat, you performed hour after hour of fasted cardio.

Entire lifetimes have been spent slogging it out on treadmills, bikes and ellipticals under the premise that training with no food in your stomach (a.k.a. training fasted) was the one true way to banish body fat for good.

And, off the bat, it sounds like a pretty solid idea.

When deprived of food, the body inherently turns to stored energy (i.e. body fat) for fuel, but does that logic hold up in research?

Does training fasted lead to better fat loss and body composition?

We answer all of those questions and more in this review of the pros and cons of fasted training.

What is Fasted Training?

Fasted training is simply performing exercise when food is no longer being digested or absorbed by your body.

Your body enters this fasted state approximately three to six hours after you eat a meal. The time it takes to fully digest and absorb a given meal depends on the overall size (caloric density) of the meal, as well as how much protein, fat, carbohydrates, and fiber constitute said meal.

The greater amount of fiber, fat, and/or protein a meal contains, the longer it will take to digest.

Benefits (Pros) of Fasted Cardio

Enhances Fat Burning

Exercise science has pretty well established that performing fasted cardio burns significantly more fat than performing the same bout of cardio in a fed state. A 2016 systematic review and meta-analysis including 27 studies even concluded that: [1] 

“… aerobic exercise performed in the fasted state induces higher fat oxidation than exercise performed in the fed state.”

The reason your body burns more fat when you train fasted as opposed to when it’s fed is pretty simple, and it’s rooted in your physiology. You see, the body is incredibly adept at burning carbohydrates for fuel during exercise. [2] And, when more of it is available (i.e. in the 2-3 hours following a meal), your body will by default burn those carbohydrates first, then turn to fat for the additional energy, should it be needed.

This is the main reason why study after study over the decades has noted that when people consume carbohydrates prior to exercise, they inherently burn more carbohydrate for fuel, along with less fat, during their workout. [3,4]

So, to “force” your body, in a sense, to utilize fat for fuel, you avoid eating prior to training.

Helps Eliminate Unwanted Belly Fat

No matter how slim, toned, or ripped you may be, you’re bound to have at least one area on your body that holds some “stubborn” fat. Be it the hips, thighs, or lower abdomen, each of us has one region of fat that won’t go away, regardless of how much we diet or exercise.

But, just because we have trouble with that one area of stubborn fat, doesn’t mean we have poor genetics. You see, stubborn fat is a “defense mechanism” of sorts your body has to protect against extremely low levels of body fat.

The good news is, is that fasted cardio can help you eliminate stubborn fat.

How so?

Let’s review a bit about what makes stubborn body fat so “stubborn” anyway.

Every one of the fat cells in your body has receptors on them, and chemicals your body produces called catecholamines bind to these receptors. Now, these fat cell receptors fall into one of two categories — alpha receptors and beta receptors. [5,6]

We’ll spare you the complex inner workings of how these receptors specifically affect fat loss/storage, and summarize it as basically:

  • Alpha receptors — block fat burning
  • Beta receptors — promote fat burning

The more alpha receptors a fat cell has, the more “stubborn” it is to release its stored fatty acids for oxidation, and the more beta receptors a fat cell has, the more readily it can be accessed.

As you probably guessed, the regions of fat on your body that won’t see to go away are more densely packed with alpha receptors than beta receptors, which is part of the reason they are harder to get rid.

But it doesn’t end there.

Regions of stubborn body fat also receive less blood flow, and this brings us back to our discussion of catecholamines and alpha/beta receptors.

The less blood flow an area of fat your body receives, the fewer catecholamines those fat cells are exposed two. Coupled with the fact that those areas already have a higher concentration of alpha receptors than beta receptors, and you’ve got the perfect recipe for incredibly stubborn body fat that just won’t go away.

Now, here’s where the real beauty of fasted cardio comes into the picture.

When you train in a fasted state, blood flow to the abdominal region is increased [8], which means that those areas of stubborn body fat receive greater amounts of those fat burning chemicals called catecholamines.

You can further up the ante on eliminating stubborn body fat, by supplementing with ingredients such as yohimbine, which serve as alpha receptor antagonists. These compounds bind to alpha receptors, turning them “off” in a sense and allowing greater amounts of catecholamines like adrenaline and noradrenaline to bind to beta receptors and “open the floodgates” to help burn stubborn body fat.

Workout Done for the Day

One of the less discussed benefits of training fasted is that by working out first thing in the morning, you’ve already ticked the “work out” box of the day, and now you have the rest of the day to focus on the more important things like work, family, etc.

Plus, as an added bonus, you’ll also have greater energy, mood, and focus thanks to the flood of brain-boosting chemicals that are released during the course of exercise, helping you be more productive during the early part of your day when so many other people can’t seem to function without 4-6 cups of coffee.

Avoid Stomach Upset

For many people, they train fasted simply because training shortly after eating leads to indigestion, nausea, and just a general feeling of sluggishness and lethargy. By training fasted, you avoid the rather unpleasant sensation of feeling like you’re going to puke after a set of heavy squats (at least partially) or high-intensity interval training.

The Drawback (Cons) of Fasted Cardio

Increased Potential to “Bonking”

Food is fuel for our body.

If you train first thing in the morning upon waking, and your muscles have fully replenished their glycogen stores overnight, it’s very possible you will “bonk” or “hit a wall” during your workout.

This “bonking” sensation is caused by low blood glucose and glycogen levels in the body. In a sense, your muscles are running low and fuel, and your ability to hit “top speed” is significantly diminished.

But what if eating prior to training causes my stomach to feel upset?

If you’re one of those people who doesn’t like to train with a full-feeling stomach, yet still seems to bonk during their workouts, try having a small, low-fiber snack like a banana or glass of orange juice 30-45 minutes prior to training.

These options are rapidly digested, meaning they’ll be in and out of your stomach quickly. You’ll avoid the full stomach feeling and have ample glucose to power you through your training.

Reduced Training Intensity

Training fasted, while it might be good for burning belly fat, isn’t really all that ideal when it comes to high-intensity forms of exercise, such as sprinting or heavy resistance training.

Remember, glucose (glycogen) is the kind of fuel your muscles thrive on for intense exercise, regardless of what the keto, primal, and low carb communities tell you. Simply put, if you want a superior quality workout, you want some form of carbohydrate in your system.

Your body cannot oxidize fat as quickly as it can glucose [12].

You see, the body will prioritize which nutrient it burns for fuel, provided all are available. This order of energy substrate utilization is:

  1. Blood Glucose (blood sugar)
  2. Muscle Glycogen (the storage form of glucose)
  3. Body Fat
  4. Protein (pulled from muscle)

So, what this means, is that if carbs are available, whether in the form of circulating blood sugar or muscle glycogen, your body will burn it before it touches body fat or dietary fat. This also means that during high-intensity exercise, your body will want carbohydrates to burn, as it is the nutrient most easily converted to usable energy. It can use fat, but it’s far from optimal and not very efficient.

As such, if you want to maximize performance, you don’t want to train on a fasted stomach.

Higher Cortisol Levels

Cortisol is the stress hormone your body releases when energy stores are low. Performing exercise of any kind prompts an increase in cortisol, as does fasting. Do both of these actions frequently enough (i.e. fasted training) and you may start to develop chronically elevated cortisol levels, which promotes fat storage and reduce fat burning. [9,10]

The Verdict on Fasted Training

So, it appears that there’s both good and bad when it comes to fasted training, as it is with most things in life.

But, there are a few other things that warrant consideration.

First, we know that that the number of calories you burn during a workout account for a very small fraction of your total daily energy expenditure (TDEE). What you eat during the day and how much of a deficit you use has a far greater impact on your ability to lose weight than whether you train fasted or not.

There’s even some research by Dr. Brad Schoenfeld et al. that shows that there is no difference in body composition changes (i.e. fat loss) when it comes to training fasted vs training fed. [11]

Additionally, there’s also some research noting that if you burn greater amounts of fat during an earlier part of the day (i.e. performing fasted cardio first thing in the morning), your body will actually burn less fat later on in the day. [13]

Essentially what happens, is that the body more or less “compensates” for the increased fat burning it did earlier in the day by downregulating fat burning and upregulating glucose burning the rest of the day.

In the end, training fasted can be useful for some morning bouts of cardio if you’re trying to lose some stubborn body fat, but if you’re looking to maximize performance or just lose fat in general, training fed would be the superior option.

Training in a fed state ensures that energy stores are topped off and you’ll be able to push harder in your workouts, which allows you to burn more calories, ultimately creating a larger caloric deficit. This ultimately winds up in a better fat loss and body composition.

But, for those days when you want to sweat it out first thing in the morning on an empty stomach and rid stubborn belly fat for good, there’s only one option…

Steel Sweat — THE Best Pre-Workout for Fasted Cardio

Steel Sweat™ is a metabolic catalyst that increases thermogenesis, energy expenditure, and fat burning. The all-natural ingredients in Steel Sweat™ help burn stubborn body fat and help you achieve the lean, trim physique that you’ve strived so long to achieve.

Simply mix up a scoop first thing in the morning before hitting the gym and you’re on your way to banishing belly fat for good!


  1. Vieira, A. F., Costa, R. R., Macedo, R. C. O., Coconcelli, L., & Kruel, L. F. M. (2016). Effects of aerobic exercise performed in fasted v. fed state on fat and carbohydrate metabolism in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The British Journal of Nutrition, 116(7), 1153–1164.
  2. Burke, L. M., Kiens, B., & Ivy, J. L. (2004). Carbohydrates and fat for training and recovery. Journal of Sports Sciences, 22(1), 15–30.
  3. Ahlborg, G., & Felig, P. (1976). Influence of glucose ingestion on fuel-hormone response during prolonged exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 41(5 Pt. 1), 683–688.
  4. Horowitz, J. F., Mora-Rodriguez, R., Byerley, L. O., & Coyle, E. F. (1997). Lipolytic suppression following carbohydrate ingestion limits fat oxidation during exercise. The American Journal of Physiology, 273(4 Pt 1), E768-75.
  5. Lefkowitz, R. J. (1979). Direct binding studies of adrenergic receptors: biochemical, physiologic, and clinical implications. Annals of Internal Medicine, 91(3), 450–458.
  6. Strosberg AD. Structure, function, and regulation of adrenergic receptors. Protein Science : A Publication of the Protein Society. 1993;2(8):1198-1209.
  7. Manolopoulos, K. N., Karpe, F., & Frayn, K. N. (2012). Marked resistance of femoral adipose tissue blood flow and lipolysis to adrenaline in vivo. Diabetologia, 55(11), 3029–3037.
  8. Gjedsted, J., Gormsen, L. C., Nielsen, S., Schmitz, O., Djurhuus, C. B., Keiding, S., … Moller, N. (2007). Effects of a 3-day fast on regional lipid and glucose metabolism in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Acta Physiologica (Oxford, England), 191(3), 205–216.
  9. Hill, E. E., Zack, E., Battaglini, C., Viru, M., Viru, A., & Hackney, A. C. (2008). Exercise and circulating cortisol levels: the intensity threshold effect. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, 31(7), 587–591.
  10. Moyer, A. E., Rodin, J., Grilo, C. M., Cummings, N., Larson, L. M., & Rebuffe-Scrive, M. (1994). Stress-induced cortisol response and fat distribution in women. Obesity Research, 2(3), 255–262.
  11. Schoenfeld, B. J., Aragon, A. A., Wilborn, C. D., Krieger, J. W., & Sonmez, G. T. (2014). Body composition changes associated with fasted versus non-fasted aerobic exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 11(1), 54.
  12. Jeukendrup A. A Step Towards Personalized Sports Nutrition: Carbohydrate Intake During Exercise. Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.z). 2014;44(Suppl 1):25-33. doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0148-z.
  13. Paoli, A., Marcolin, G., Zonin, F., Neri, M., Sivieri, A., & Pacelli, Q. F. (2011). Exercising fasting or fed to enhance fat loss? Influence of food intake on respiratory ratio and excess postexercise oxygen consumption after a bout of endurance training. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 21(1), 48–54.

How Nutrients Get Absorbed into Muscles

Building muscle requires a few important things:

  • Resistance-Training
  • Progressive Overload
  • High Protein Intake
  • Caloric Surplus
  • Plenty of Sleep

While each of these is important in their own right, all the sleeping, resistance training, and progressive overloading you do won’t do a lick of good if you’re not consuming a sufficient number of calories.

The way your body utilizes all of those calories is via the gastrointestinal (GI) system. It’s the foundation of muscle building, cognitive function, and overall health. The organs comprising your GI system work together to convert food into energy and the other essential nutrients required by the body.

But, how exactly do those nutrients make their way from your stomach to your muscles?

Let’s find out!

How is Food Digested

In order to understand how nutrients, get absorbed into your muscles, we first need to explain how food is digested in the body. The GI system includes your:

  • Mouth
  • Esophagus
  • Stomach
  • Liver
  • Pancreas
  • Gallbladder
  • Small Intestine
  • Large Intestine
  • Anus

Though we typically think of food being digested in the stomach, the process of digestion actually begins in the mouth. In fact, the mouth is responsible for mechanical and chemical digestion. Mechanical digestion is accomplished through the act of chewing, while chemical digestion is caused by the enzymes secreted by the salivary glands in saliva. But, saliva isn’t just for breaking down food, it also moistens food so it can work its way down your esophagus and into your stomach.

Upon entering the stomach, a mish-mash of enzymes and acids (hydrochloric acid) continue to break down food in addition to the stomach muscles that mix the food with these digestive juices. Not to be forgotten during digestion is the important role the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder serve. These three organs secrete the bile, digestive juices, and other important enzymes required to break down the wide variety of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins contained in the food you just ate.

After spending time in the stomach, the digested food is transported to your intestines, and it’s here where we start to see how nutrients get absorbed into your muscles.

From the GI System to Everywhere Else

Digestion is still occurring when your “food” (if you can still call it that by this point in the digestive process) reaches the small intestine. In fact, a large portion of the breakdown of complex carbohydrates (maltose, isomaltose, trisaccharides, larger oligosaccharides, etc.) still needs to be broken down into monosaccharides (simple sugars) so that they can be taken up. This brings us to the critical aspect of muscle-building — nutrient absorption.

The majority of nutrient absorption occurs in the small intestines and then directs them to your circulatory system for transportation to all the various parts of the body. Your blood is responsible for carrying simple sugars (monosaccharides like glucose), amino acids (the building blocks of protein), glycerol, and certain vitamins and salts to your liver. The liver either stores or processes and delivers the required nutrients where they are needed.

One of the most important component of nutrient absorption is the main anabolic hormone of the body — insulin. When glucose enters the blood, it stimulates the release of insulin — the primary nutrient shuttling in the body. Insulin picks up nutrients from your blood and drives them into your cells, your muscle cells in particular. Insulin is also tasked with shuttling amino acids and fatty acids into your cells as well. Upon entering the cell, glucose is converted to glycogen (the stored form of energy your muscles use for high-intensity exercise) while the amino acids get to work repairing damaged muscle tissue and building new muscle tissue.

Improving Nutrient Absorption

Consuming the right amounts of essential nutrients is crucial, but it won’t do much good if your body isn’t properly absorbing the nutrient you’re ingesting. You see, widespread use of antibiotics coupled with overconsumption of hyper-processed foods (i.e. chicken nuggets) has led to the decimation of good gut bacteria which is tasked with digestion and absorption of the essential nutrients your body requires for survival.

Fortunately, there are some ways you can enhance the number of good gut bacteria in your body and your body’s absorption of the nutrients you put into it on a daily basis.

  • Eat Plenty of Fiber

    Dietary fiber from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains provides the necessary “fuel” your gut bacteria need to keep functioning. Without this food, gut bacteria leach what they need from the lining of your GI tract which can lead to “leaky gut” and further nutrient absorption issues.

  • Chew Food Thoroughly

    Chewing plays a critical, and often underestimated, role in digestion. The more you chew, the more your food is broken down, which means there’s less work that needs to be done by the rest of your digestive system later on in the process. As an added bonus, chewing your food more thoroughly slows down how fast you’re eating, which gives your brain time to receive the signal that you are full, thereby preventing overheating.

  • Drink plenty of water

    Consuming enough water aids in the digestion and dissolution of fats and soluble fiber you eat, making for better nutrient absorption.

  • Exercise

    Exercise increases blood flow to your muscles (including those of the GI tract), but it also enhances blood flow to your organs. This is important because the walls of your colon need to contract when eliminated waste from the body, and exercise helps keep those muscles stimulated and active.

  • Drink less alcohol

    Whenever you consume alcohol, it disrupts acid secretion and digestion, leading to poor nutrient absorption. If you’re serious about losing fat and building muscle, you need to prioritize those essential muscle-building nutrients, which means passing on the alcohol, lest you not best use what you’re putting into your body.

  • Try probiotics

    Remember when we discussed the “good” gut bacteria above? Probiotics are one of the “good” bacteria in your gut that support immune system function. Probiotics compete for space in your gut with bad bacteria and can even help reduce the number of bad bacteria in your gut. Unfortunately, due to years of poor diets, most people are sadly lacking in probiotics.

    The remedy for this is to invest in some probiotic supplements or eat probiotic-rich foods (yogurt, kefir, sauerkraut, kombucha, etc.). This promotes the growth of more good gut bacteria, which can help ease IBS as well as combat allergies and the common cold.


  1. National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse/National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. The Digestive System and How It Works
  2. Mourad FH, Saade NE. Neural regulation of intestinal nutrient absorption. Prog Neurobiol. 2011;95(2):149-162. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2011.07.010.
  3. Goodman BE. Insights into digestion and absorption of major nutrients in humans. Adv Physiol Educ. 2010;34(2):44-53. doi:10.1152/advan.00094.2009.
  4. Desai MS, Seekatz AM, Koropatkin NM, et al. A Dietary Fiber-Deprived Gut Microbiota Degrades the Colonic Mucus Barrier and Enhances Pathogen Susceptibility. Cell. 2018;167(5):1339-1353.e21. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.10.043.
  5. Tracey J. Smith, Diane Rigassio-Radler, Robert Denmark, Timothy Haley, Riva Touger-Decker. Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG® and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12® on health-related quality of life in college students affected by upper respiratory infections. British Journal of Nutrition, 2012; 1 DOI: 10.1017/S0007114512004138

Complete Guide to Evodiamine

Weight loss supplements, a.k.a. fat burners, are some of the most popular supplements on the market. Just about every company in the game has at least one product specifically designed to help you get lean, drop unwanted water weight, and reveal the slim, sexy physique hidden underneath the stored fat.

Most of you know that caffeine is one of the main ingredients in thermogenic fat burners, but have you given much thought about any of the other ingredients that are in your favorite weight loss product?

Probably not.

Today, we’re going to take a look at one of the less frequently used fat loss agents that helps crank up your thermogenic engine in evodiamine.

What is Evodiamine?

Evodiamine is a naturally occurring bioactive alkaloid from a plant called Evodia rutaecarpa. It has a long history of use in Traditional Chinese Medicine as a weight loss aid, where it goes by the name Wu-Chu-Yu. It’s also been used to treat various digestive problems including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach ulcers, and poor appetite. Evodiamine was also used by Chinese healers as a warming agent or “hot herb”, which speaks to its thermogenic properties.

The Evodia plant belongs to the Tetradium family of trees in Asia, but found predominantly in China, which explains its heavy use in ancient Chinese medicine.

What Does Evodiamine Do?

Evodiamine has been studied extensively, and researchers have documented a number of interesting effects the potent alkaloid exerts in the body.

Increases Body Temperature

The main reason you’ll see evodiamine used in supplements (particularly fat burners) is that it increases body temperature, which helps your body burn more calories and ultimately lose weight. Some research conducted on mice has shown that evodiamine may improve fat loss by 28% and decrease overall weight by 10%. [1]

Animal studies have also noted that evodia can improve resistance to cold, though this hasn’t been replicated in human trials yet. [1,2]

Anti-Obesity Effects

Evodiamine not only helps your body burn more calories, it also may prevent your body from creating new fat cells. Research has shown that evodiamine decreases preadipocyte differentiation.

What does that mean?

Basically, preadipocytes are “infant” fat cells that have to grow and mature into full-fledged adipocytes (fat). Growth and differentiation of preadipocytes are regulated by communication between individual cells or between cells and their external environment. Evodiamine is able to inhibit preadipocyte differentiation by disrupting these communication lines via two different mechanisms [3,4,5]:

  • Activates the MAPK cascade, subsequently reducing insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt and PPARγ activity
  • Agonizes TRPV1 receptors (vanilloid receptors)

Through these actions, evodiamine reduces the uptake of fat and subsequently increases your body’s natural fat burning mechanisms. Burning more calories and preventing fat cells from maturing provides a two-pronged attack to help you get lean and mean!


Over the counter non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen work by inhibiting a pro-inflammatory enzyme known as COX. Reducing inflammation helps reduce pain and swelling.

Aside from its warming and fat loss benefits, evodiamine was also used as a natural pain reliever, and there’s some research to support that use, as scientists have noted that evodiamine prevents upregulation of COX-2. [6] Moreover, the powerful alkaloid was shown to inhibit another well-known marker of inflammation in NF-kB.[6]

Stimulant Smoother

One of the most interesting things about evodiamine is that it can affect how your body metabolizes certain compounds, such as caffeine. More specifically, evodiamine reduces the exposure of caffeine to the body [7,8], which means it suppresses circulating levels of the stimulant and helps smooth out the stimulant effects of caffeine. Essentially, you get the energy and focus of caffeine, without the jitters or overstimulated feeling.

Some additional research indicates that evodiamine may also help improve cognition. [9]

Benefits of Evodiamine

  • Increases Thermogenesis
  • Relieves Pain
  • Decreases Inflammation
  • Enhances Fat Loss
  • Reduces Appetite

Evodiamine Dosing

Due to the lack of human studies on evodiamine, there hasn’t been an “ideal” or most effective dose; however, fat burners on the market dose it anywhere from 5-100mg, depending on the standardization of the evodia extract.

Now, as to effectiveness, evodiamine has an incredibly short half-life, lasting just under an hour. [11] Evodiamine also suffers from relatively low bioavailability, but the bioavailability can be improved when using a whole plant extract standardized for evodiamine rather than using an isolated evodiamine supplement.


Evodiamine is an underutilized fat burning agent that increases your calorie burn and prevents fat gain in the body. It may also suppress appetite and decrease pain and inflammation. When paired with caffeine, it helps smooth out the harsh “jolt” it can frequently provide, which is why you’ll see evodiamine frequently paired with caffeine in pre-workouts and fat burners.


  1.  Kobayashi, Y., Nakano, Y., Kizaki, M., Hoshikuma, K., Yokoo, Y., & Kamiya, T. (2001). Capsaicin-like anti-obese activities of evodiamine from fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa, a vanilloid receptor agonist. Planta Medica, 67(7), 628–633.
  2. Callsen, M. G., Moller, A. T., Sorensen, K., Jensen, T. S., & Finnerup, N. B. (2008). Cold hyposensitivity after topical application of capsaicin in humans. Experimental Brain Research, 191(4), 447–452.
  3. Wang, T., Wang, Y., Kontani, Y., Kobayashi, Y., Sato, Y., Mori, N., & Yamashita, H. (2008). Evodiamine improves diet-induced obesity in a uncoupling protein-1-independent manner: involvement of antiadipogenic mechanism and extracellularly regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Endocrinology, 149(1), 358–366.
  4. Pearce, L. V, Petukhov, P. A., Szabo, T., Kedei, N., Bizik, F., Kozikowski, A. P., & Blumberg, P. M. (2004). Evodiamine functions as an agonist for the vanilloid receptor TRPV1. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, 2(16), 2281–2286.
  5. Zhang, L. L., Yan Liu, D., Ma, L. Q., Luo, Z. D., Cao, T. B., Zhong, J., … Tepel, M. (2007). Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 channel prevents adipogenesis and obesity. Circulation Research, 100(7), 1063–1070.
  6. Choi, Y. H., Shin, E. M., Kim, Y. S., Cai, X. F., Lee, J. J., & Kim, H. P. (2006). Anti-inflammatory principles from the fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa and their cellular action mechanisms. Archives of Pharmacal Research, 29(4), 293–297.
  7. Noh, K., Seo, Y. M., Lee, S. K., Bista, S. R., Kang, M. J., Jahng, Y., … Jeong, T. C. (2011). Effects of rutaecarpine on the metabolism and urinary excretion of caffeine in rats. Archives of Pharmacal Research, 34(1), 119–125.
  8. Tsai TH, Chang CH, Lin LC Effects of Evodia rutaecarpa and rutaecarpine on the pharmacokinetics of caffeine in rats . Planta Med. (2005)
  9. Yuan S, Gao K, Wang D, et al. Evodiamine improves cognitive abilities in SAMP8 and APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica. 2011;32(3):295-302. doi:10.1038/aps.2010.230.
  10. Liao, J.-F., Chiou, W.-F., Shen, Y.-C., Wang, G.-J., & Chen, C.-F. (2011). Anti-inflammatory and anti-infectious effects of Evodia rutaecarpa (Wuzhuyu) and its major bioactive components. Chinese Medicine, 6(1), 6.
  11. Hu CQ, Li F, Yang XW. Simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetic analysis of seven alkaloids and two flavonoids from rat plasma by HPLC-DAD after oral administration of Wuzhuyu decoction. J Asian Nat Prod Res. (2012)

Your Complete Guide to Sucralose

Sucralose is the leading artificial sweetener included in sports nutrition supplements these days. There’s a great deal of confusion about whether or not it’s safe for consumption or if it affects your blood sugar like regular sugar does. We’re here to answer all of your questions and more!

Sugar is public enemy #1.

It goes by countless aliases and can be found in all kinds of foods, from the obvious candy bars, cookies, and ice creams to the less obvious ketchup, yogurt, and salad dressings.

Sugar has been targeted for its role in the current obesity and diabetes dilemmas spanning the globe, and in the effort to curtail the ever-increasing health care crisis, food scientists developed an arsenal of alternatives to the conventional calorie-laden sweetener in non-nutritive sweeteners, a.k.a artificial sweeteners.

Chief among these zero-calorie sweetening alternatives is sucralose, better known by the trademarked name Splenda®. But, there’s been growing concern that these man-made sweeteners may be even more dangerous than sugar, bringing with it a host of problems more severe than an expanding waistline.

To help sort through confusion and disinformation, we’ve compiled this tell-all piece to explain what sucralose is, why it’s in your favorite supplements, and if you need to be concerned.

So, let’s start at the top….

What is Sucralose?

Sucralose (Splenda) is one of the most commonly used non-nutritive sweeteners on the market today. Other top alternatives to sugar include:

  • Stevia
  • Aspartame
  • Ace-K
  • Saccharin
  • Neotame
  • Monk Fruit (Luo Han Guo)

Sucralose is derived from sugar; however, in place of the 3 hydrocarbon groups attached to the carbon backbone are chlorine atoms. This molecular mish-mashing creates a molecule that is not recognized by your digestive system and passes through without being broken down and thus yielding no calories. Hence, sucralose being dubbed a “non-nutritive sweetener”.

Sucralose was discovered in 1976 by a British scientist who misheard instructions about testing a particular substance. Following the mishap, he tasted the “result” and found the new substance to be incredibly sweet.

Following the concerns of reports that aspartame caused cancer (which have since been proven false), sucralose skyrocketed to the forefront of the alternative sweetener line and it debuted in the United States in 1999 in the form of Splenda, which is a joint effort of the companies Johnson & Johnson and Tate & Lyle.

Splenda is frequently used as a substitute for sugar in baking and cooking and can be found in many sugar-free packaged goods these days.

Now, we need to make a small, but slightly important distinction before proceeding further. Sucralose in and of itself is calorie-free; however, Splenda (the little yellow packets you get at restaurants) is NOT calorie-free. Each packet of Splenda actually contains 3.36 calories per gram. [1] This is due to the fact that Splenda packets contain sucralose as well as dextrose and maltodextrin (two calorie-yielding carbohydrates).

Compared to standard sucrose (table sugar), sucralose is approximately 400-700 times sweeter than sugar, and one thing that separates sucralose from just about all other artificial sweeteners is that it doesn’t come with the unpleasant bitter aftertaste. [2,3]

Now, just because sucralose isn’t yielding any calories when you ingest it, doesn’t mean it’s completely inert when passing through your body. After all, when you consume sucralose it does have an extremely sweet taste, so, it stands to reason that it’s affecting some kind of receptor…. right?

Indeed, it does.

How Sucralose Works

Humans (and mice) have a “sweet” receptor called TAS1R3, which sucralose binds to in the body. [4] Other organisms do too! In flies, the sweet receptor is called Gr64a.[5] While it’s not really important that you know what receptor is stimulated by the ingestion of sucralose (or any other artificial sweetener for that matter), it is important to realize that just because something doesn’t yield calories does not mean it’s not affecting your body in some way, shape, or form.

Cellular biology out of the way, now we can begin to answer the question of whether or not sucralose presents any immediate concern.

Sucralose and Blood Sugar

The point of using non-nutritive sweeteners like sucralose is that they come with no calories (or very few) and don’t wreak havoc on blood sugar and insulin levels the way that regular table sugar does. However, due to the fact that sucralose does taste sweet and impact the sweet receptors in our body, it’s reasonable to think that sucralose might affect blood sugar levels.

So, what does the research say?

Well, remember, digestion begins in the mouth where our bodies secrete enzymes that start to “interact” and detect the food we eat and start to break it down. Under normal circumstances (i.e. eating regular sugar), these taste receptors sense sweet, setting off a chain of events that ends with the intestines detecting the sugar present and gleaning some calories (energy) from it. So, what happens when the body detects something but can’t get energy from it?

Well, one of two things…

One study conducted with individuals not accustomed to eating artificial sweeteners noted that ingesting sucralose before glucose can increase blood sugar and the body’s insulin response to carbohydrates. [9] However, after 12 weeks, there were NO significant differences between control and sucralose groups in terms of glucose regulation. In other words, the subjects using sucralose developed a “tolerance” of sorts.

Basically, researchers theorize that ingesting sucralose causes the body to create additional glucose transporters that deliver glucose from the gut to the body. However, this is only occurring in the short term, meaning that the increase in insulin and glucose uptake is only temporary until your body gets acclimated to “experiencing” sucralose in its system.

Sucralose and Appetite

Sucralose and the rest of the non-nutritive sweetening gang are frequently included in foods made to support weight loss efforts, due to the fact that they help reduce the total carb and calorie count of foods, but a common concern about artificial sweeteners is that they actually increase hunger levels.

So, by using sucralose are you “robbing Peter to pay Paul” in a sense…trading the reduced calories to increase hunger, which ultimately means you’re eating more?

Let’s see…

Research notes that sucralose may increase GLP-1 (glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide) secretions when sucralose is consumed in the form of diet soda, but not when ingested on its own. [11,12] A separate study in mice noted ingestion of sucralose caused an increase in neuropeptide Y, a powerful hunger-stimulating protein. [5]

While this might be a bit off-putting, remember, these studies were conducted in non-human populations. The results of these studies DO NOT translate directly to human metabolism.

Ok, so, are there any human studies assessing sucralose and appetite?

Indeed, there are, and here’s what they found:

Human research found that sucralose does NOT increase appetite, consumed either in the form of diet soda or on its own. [11,13,14] In fact, researchers compared the effects of sucralose on appetite to that of water.

Bottom line — sucralose doesn’t make you hungrier.

Regarding weight gain, studies on the weight loss/gain effects of non-nutritive sweeteners are mostly correlational and the few double-blind trials that have been run, along with the meta-analyses reviewing everything compiled on the weight implications of non-nutritive sweeteners indicate they have no effect on fat mass or lead to mild weight loss. [15]

Sucralose and Your Gut

A few years back, sucralose came under fire when some rodent research documented that ingestion of the non-nutritive sweetener increased the rat’s risk for irritable bowel diseases [6], though some researchers suspect this is more likely attributed to a low fiber intake than the artificial sweeteners.

Other research in mice noted sucralose led to the development of symptoms associated with Crohn’s disease and liver inflammation. [7,8] However, these studies noted that the effects were dependent on the gut bacteria present on the mice, not the interactions with the rodents’ “sweet receptor.”

In particular, the study noting liver inflammation showed a change in the intestinal bacteria towards strains that were pro-inflammatory (i.e. “bad” bacteria) whereas the Crohn’s study noted an increase in oxidation generated by the gut bacteria.

While this might be fodder for the fearmongering folks in the media, there’s a couple things to remember about these studies:

  1. They’re conducted in rats. It’s nigh-impossible to extrapolate what would happen to humans. We barely have a grasp on our own metabolism, much less the intricacies of our gut bacteria. It might be that the gut bacteria themselves have sweet receptors and get a bit angry when they’re tricked by these “fake sugars.”
  2. The animals used in the studies consumed an extremely poor diet, and it’s simply not logical to assume that what occurs in their gut microbiome will carry over into a human gut, especially if one is consuming a diverse diet rich in micronutrients.

Is Sucralose Safe?

To date, science has not conclusively shown that sucralose presents any immediate danger or concern with consuming it on a regular basis. Additionally, it’s also be designated GRAS (generally recognized as safe) by the FDA.

There are some animal studies showing it can alter gut bacteria, but nothing conclusive has been proven one way or another in human trials. Also, while sucralose may have a very short-term effect on glucose and insulin secretions, the effects do not appear to be long-lasting, and there’s also no evidence that sucralose adversely impacts weight or hunger levels in humans.

Given the drove of consequences that come with excess sugar consumption, having an alternative that doesn’t provide a way to enjoy sweet food fare without having to worry about blowing your diet or messing with your insulin levels.

All things considered, sucralose is recognized as safe for consumption and when stacked up against the other sweetening options available seems to be a fairly safe bet. If you’re concerned about any GI issues from using sucralose, make sure to consume moderately and always maintain a micronutrient-dense diet full of whole foods.


  2. WIET, S. G. and BEYTS, P. K. (1992), Sensory Characteristics of Sucralose and other High Intensity Sweeteners. Journal of Food Science, 57: 1014-1019. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1992.tb14345.x
  3. Horne J, Lawless HT, Speirs W, Sposato D. Bitter taste of saccharin and acesulfame-K. Chem Senses. 2002;27(1):31-38.
  4. Harrington EO, Vang A, Braza J, Shil A, Chichger H. Activation of the sweet taste receptor, T1R3, by the artificial sweetener sucralose regulates the pulmonary endothelium. American Journal of Physiology – Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology. 2018;314(1):L165-L176. doi:10.1152/ajplung.00490.2016.
  5. Wang Q-P, Lin YQ, Zhang L, et al. Sucralose Promotes Food Intake through NPY and a Neuronal Fasting Response. Cell Metab. 2016;24(1):75-90. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2016.06.010
  6. Sakamoto N, Kono S, Wakai K, et al. Dietary risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease: a multicenter case-control study in Japan. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2005;11(2):154-163.
  7. Rodriguez-Palacios A, Harding A, Menghini P, et al. The Artificial Sweetener Splenda Promotes Gut Proteobacteria, Dysbiosis, and Myeloperoxidase Reactivity in Crohn’s Disease-Like Ileitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2018;24(5):1005-1020. doi:10.1093/ibd/izy060
  8. Bian X, Chi L, Gao B, Tu P, Ru H, Lu K. Gut Microbiome Response to Sucralose and Its Potential Role in Inducing Liver Inflammation in Mice. Frontiers in Physiology. 2017;8:487. doi:10.3389/fphys.2017.00487.
  9. Pepino MY, Tiemann CD, Patterson BW, Wice BM, Klein S. Sucralose Affects Glycemic and Hormonal Responses to an Oral Glucose Load. Diabetes Care. 2013;36(9):2530-2535. doi:10.2337/dc12-2221.
  10. Stearns AT, Balakrishnan A, Rhoads DB, Tavakkolizadeh A. Rapid Upregulation of Sodium-Glucose Transporter SGLT1 in Response to Intestinal Sweet Taste Stimulation. Annals of surgery. 2010;251(5):865-871. doi:10.1097/SLA.0b013e3181d96e1f.
  11. Sylvetsky AC, Brown RJ, Blau JE, Walter M, Rother KI. Hormonal responses to non-nutritive sweeteners in water and diet soda. Nutrition & Metabolism. 2016;13:71. doi:10.1186/s12986-016-0129-3.
  12. Ma J, Bellon M, Wishart JM, et al. Effect of the artificial sweetener, sucralose, on gastric emptying and incretin hormone release in healthy subjects. American Journal of Physiology – Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. 2009;296(4):G735-G739. doi:10.1152/ajpgi.90708.2008.
  13. Steinert RE, Frey F, Topfer A, Drewe J, Beglinger C. Effects of carbohydrate sugars and artificial sweeteners on appetite and the secretion of gastrointestinal satiety peptides. Br J Nutr. 2011;105(9):1320-1328. doi:10.1017/S000711451000512X
  14. Ford HE, Peters V, Martin NM, et al. Effects of oral ingestion of sucralose on gut hormone response and appetite in healthy normal-weight subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011;65(4):508-513. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2010.291
  15. Miller PE, Perez V. Low-calorie sweeteners and body weight and composition: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2014;100(3):765-777. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.082826.

The Complete Guide to Fat Oxidation

Burning fat is big business. One need only look at the gross revenue of the weight loss industry, which just so happens to be a $66 billion dollar a year industry [1,2], for proof that there’s of money to be made helping people lose unwanted body fat.

Over the decades, all sorts of pills, potions, and powders have been released with the single goal of helping the individual who struggles to maintain an ideal body composition. And, for a time, people do experience some success with their individual weight loss ventures – in the short, that is.

You see, as much money as the fat loss industry generates each year, it hasn’t translated to long-lasting results for the consumer. Roughly 70% of the United States population is overweight or obese, with the percentage of 12-17-year-olds who are overweight doubling since 1980.

Additionally, about 95% of people who are overweight or obese that do try a diet end up regaining the lost weight (and sometimes more) back within one year of their attempt at dieting.

Suffice it to say, that the current weight loss system isn’t very effective, regardless of how profitable it is.

And before you blame the industry, you need to realize that both sides are at fault. The consumer can’t stick to his or her diet, and the industry pushes diets that aren’t sustainable and supplements that are quasi-effective at best.

So, since the current system isn’t working particularly well, what can we do to improve fat loss for the consumer and help them drop the fat once and for all?

Educate them.

Like most things in life, the better you understand a subject, the more likely you are to be able to apply its principles and experience success.

So, with that in mind, let’s discuss the ins and outs of how your body burns fat.

Fat Burning = Fat Oxidation

First off, let’s get some terminology taken care of.

When discussing fat burning, what we’re actually talking about from a physiological standpoint is the oxidation of fat.

What does that mean?

As you probably know, fat cells (adipose tissue) are the primary storage site of body fat, and they are in a constant state of turnover, meaning that fat is continuously entering or exiting the cell-based of several factors including hormones, nutrition, and metabolism.[3] The net effect of these factors determines the number of fatty acids that are circulating in your bloodstream as well as how much body fat is stored.

Fat is stored in adipose tissue as triglycerides. These triglycerides are released into the bloodstream via the actions of the enzyme Hormone-Sensitive Lipase (HSL) [3,4] where they can then be burned (“oxidized”) for energy.

This process of stored fatty acids being released into the bloodstream to be used for energy production is known as lipolysis.

What Happens during Fat Oxidation?

Fat oxidation can essentially be broken down into three phases:

  • Lipolysis
  • Mobilization
  • Oxidation

Lipolysis = Releasing Stored Fat

Triglycerides are composed of a glycerol “backbone” and three fatty acids. In order for your body to burn the fatty acids, they must first be separated from the glycerol molecule. For this to happen, an enzyme called lipase cleaves the fatty acids from the glycerol via hydrolysis. [3,4]

Mobilization = Transporting Fat for Oxidation

The second phase of fat burning comes in the form of fatty acid mobilization.

After separation and release from the fat cell, the fatty acids then enter the bloodstream where they circulate bound to a protein called serum albumin.

Serum albumin acts as a “taxi” of sorts that helps shuttle the fatty acids to the target cell requiring energy. and enter muscles to be “burned.”

The reason fatty acids require the shuttling actions of albumin is due to the fact that blood is composed mostly of water. As you’ve seen first-hand if you’ve ever whipped up your own salad dressing, water and oil don’t mix together all that well. This is due to the fact that fat is not water-soluble, meaning it doesn’t dissolve in water. [5]

As such, albumin serves as the protein carrier that taxis fatty acids through the bloodstream to the muscle cell when they are needed. Each albumin protein can carry with it several fatty acids. [5]

Upon arrival at the target cell, we enter the final phase of the fat burning process…

Oxidation = Burning Fat for Fuel

As the fatty acids enter the cell, they are stored in the cytoplasm of the cell, which is the thick solution that fills the inner regions of the cell. But, we don’t want the fatty acids to remain in the cytoplasm.

In order for them to be converted into ATP (i.e. burned for energy), they must enter the mitochondria of the cell, which can be thought of as each individual cell’s mini-nuclear reactor that generates the energy required to power the cell.

Now, the actual process of converting the fatty acids to ATP is called beta-oxidation. It’s a multistep process that in and of itself requires a lengthy discussion and deep dive into biochemistry that would put most of you to sleep.

For the purposes of this article, just know that the beta-oxidation is the process by which your body obtains energy from fatty acids.

Fatty acids are shuttled from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria via the actions of a substance called carnitine, which many of you have probably seen in your favorite fat burning supplements, such as Steel Sweat.

Once converted into ATP, the energy can then be used by the cell to power it to perform whatever sort of activity you might be performing (weight lifting, cardio, walking, laying on the sofa, etc.)

But, what happens if there’s no immediate need?

In certain cases (i.e. starvation, fasting, etc.) high amounts of fatty acids are broken down and subsequently flood the mitochondria. Since there’s not a high demand for energy from the muscles, the fatty acids are converted into ketones, where they can then be used by the brain and muscles as a source of energy.

These ketone bodies are rich in energy and the preferred source of energy for people following low-carb, ketogenic, and zero carb diets.

How to Increase Fat Oxidation

Since most people entering the fitness space are wanting to lose fat, it would make sense to discuss what things we can do to enhance fat oxidation and accelerate fat loss.

Reduce Calories

One of these ways is by reducing caloric expenditure, i.e. creating a calorie deficit. When you reduce the number of calories you’re consuming, your body has to make up for the lack of energy (food) you’re ingesting to suffice its energy requirements from pulling from your fat stores.

This is why in order to lose fat, cutting calories is one of the main things you have to do. Weight loss ultimately boils down to energy balance in the body, i.e. calories in vs calories out. To create a negative energy balance, you can decrease the number of calories your intake, and increase the number of calories you “outtake”, which is accomplished through exercise.

Regulate Insulin Levels

Earlier in this article, we discussed the importance of hormone-sensitive lipase in the liberating of stored fatty acids from adipose tissue. There exists another hormone, which you’re probably very familiar with, that opposes the actions of hormone-sensitive lipase called insulin.

Insulin is the hormone in your body that is responsible for driving nutrients into your cells, including muscle and fat cells, which can then be used for energy production.

The main macronutrient that causes insulin levels to rise is carbohydrates and seeing that insulin effectively shuts off the fat burning process, maintaining low levels of insulin is essential to maximizing fat burning.

This is why so many ketogenic, low carb, no carb diets restrict carbohydrate intake. They’re trying to limit the amount of insulin that is released, so that you’re burning more and more fat, rather than glucose.

But, just because we’re trying to burn fat doesn’t mean that we have to avoid any and all carbohydrates.

You can still have your carbs and burn body fat, but it requires some proper nutritional selections on your part.

Simple sugars create larger insulin spikes in the body than complex carbohydrates or protein. If you’re trying to maximize fat burning, you want to opt for things like green vegetables, berries, avocados, as well as proteins, which create lower insulin spikes and promote fat burning.

But, let’s say that a few times per week you still want to have a sweet treat, and still lose fat.

Is there anything you can do?


And it comes in the form of…


As we stated above, increasing your calories out is one of the ways you can tip energy balance in favor of fat loss. This, of course, is accomplished through exercise, and we can maximize fat burning by performing the right types of exercise.

Science has pretty clearly shown that during exercise, your muscles can use both dietary carbohydrate and fat operate as substrates used for energy. [7,8,9] However, there are a few factors that affect which macronutrient your body uses for energy. Factors affect substrate utilization include [10]:

  • Diet

    If you’re consuming a low carbohydrate diet and/or going into your workout fasted, you will burn fat for fuel.

  • Muscle glycogen content

    Your body has a finite amount of glycogen stored in the muscle. Once these stores are exhausted, the body will start pulling from your fat stores for energy.

  • Exercise intensity

    Low to moderate intensity forms of exercise primarily use fat as their source of energy. The higher you go with exercise intensity, the more you shift to burning glycogen and glucose.

    Research notes that maximal rates of fat oxidation are achieved when training at intensities of 59-64% of maximum oxygen consumption in trained individuals and between 47-52% of maximum oxygen consumption in the general population. [6]

  • Duration of training

    The longer you train, the more you deplete glycogen and once those stores are depleted, you will switch to burning fat for fuel.

  • Training status

    The more “fit” you are, the harder you can exercise before shifting from fat burning to glucose burning. Additionally, the more fit you are, the lower your resting insulin levels will be, thus allowing you to burn more fat outside of your eating windows.

Due to these factors, you can begin to understand why most fasted cardio sessions are performed at a relatively low intensity — it maximizes fat burning in the body.

Does that mean you should only perform steady-state cardio when trying to lose body fat?

No, not at all.

There’s something known as EPOC (excess post-exercise oxygen consumption), which is science speak for the “afterburn” effect created by a high-intensity exercise where your body continues to burn calories even after your training session is over.

Steady-state cardio, while it burns more fat during the actual time you’re exercising compared to interval-based cardio, has virtually no effect on EPOC, which means that once you stop performing your steady-state cardio, the calorie burns stop.

This is why you’re still able to lose fat even without performing any steady-state cardio whatsoever. The oxygen deficit created by high-intensity forms of training such as weight lifting or interval training leads to greater overall calorie burning as your body works to restore homeostasis.

Your body uses oxygen to:

  • Regenerate ATP that was burned during the workout
  • Resynthesize of muscle glycogen depleted during training
  • Restore oxygen levels in the blood
  • Repair muscle tissue damaged during the workout
  • Restore core temperature to resting (homeostasis) levels

Each of these actions requires a certain amount of energy to be carried out, and if you’re in a caloric deficit, that energy comes from your fat stores.

This is why high-intensity interval training can aid fat loss even though you’re technically not using fat as a fuel during the actual workout.

The point of this is to say that both steady-state and high-intensity interval training can be used to lose body fat. The mechanisms by which they work are different, but the end result is the same. [11]


Fat burning is a billion-dollar industry, yet very few people actually understand the theory and science of what it takes to burn fat, and even fewer know how to apply it to daily life.

Hopefully, this guide has shed some light on manageable ways to burn more fat in your daily routine, so that you can achieve the body you’ve always wanted.

And, if you need some help burning extra calories and shifting your body towards a greater fat burning environment, check out Steel Sweat.

Steel Sweat is the ideal pre-workout for fasted training. Not only does it include ingredients such as caffeine which help release fatty acids to be burned for energy it also includes several pro-fat burning compounds, such as L-Carnitine L-Tartrate and Paradoxine, which take those liberated fatty acids and burn them for energy.

Steel Sweat can help you burn fat like never before and achieve the results you’ve always wanted and more!


  3. Arner, P. (2005). Human fat cell lipolysis: biochemistry, regulation and clinical role. Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 19(4), 471–482.
  4. Lass A, Zimmermann R, Oberer M, Zechner R. Lipolysis – A highly regulated multi-enzyme complex mediates the catabolism of cellular fat stores. Progress in Lipid Research. 2011;50(1-4):14-27. doi:10.1016/j.plipres.2010.10.004.
  5. Holloway, G.P., Luiken, J.J.F.P., Glatz, J.F.C., Spriet, L.L., & Bonen, A. (2008). Contribution of FAT/CD36 to the regulation of skeletal muscle Fatty acid oxidation: an overview. Acta Physiologica, 192, 293-309.
  6. Achten, J., & Jeukendrup, A. E. (2004). Optimizing fat oxidation through exercise and diet. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.), 20(7–8), 716–727.
  7. FRAWLEY K, GREENWALD G, ROGERS RR, PETRELLA JK, MARSHALL MR. Effects of Prior Fasting on Fat Oxidation during Resistance Exercise. International Journal of Exercise Science. 2018;11(2):827-833.
  8. Achten J, Gleeson M, Jeukendrup AE. Determination of the exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(1):92–97.
  9. Achten J, Jeukendrup A. Maximal fat oxidation during exercise in trained men. Int J Sports Med. 2003;24(08):603–608.
  10. Venables, M. C., Achten, J., & Jeukendrup, A. E. (2005). Determinants of fat oxidation during exercise in healthy men and women: a cross-sectional study. Journal of Applied Physiology, 98(1), 160–167.
  11. Zhang H, Tong TK, Qiu W, et al. Comparable Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training and Prolonged Continuous Exercise Training on Abdominal Visceral Fat Reduction in Obese Young Women. Journal of Diabetes Research. 2017;2017:5071740. doi:10.1155/2017/5071740.
  12. Foureaux, G., Pinto, K. M. de C., & Dmaso, A. (2006). Effects of excess post-exercise oxygen consumption and resting metabolic rate in energetic cost. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Do Esporte, 12(6), 393–398.

Paradoxine® – The Ultimate Stimulant Free Fat Loss Agent

Burning fat and losing unwanted weight usually involves two things — lots of exercising or eating an insanely restrictive, low-calorie diet. Neither of these sounds appealing to most people, which is part of the reason so many people struggle to lose weight in the first place.

There’s always the option of trying out a fat burner or two, but you run the risk of either wasting your money on a completely useless product, or having it make you feel anxious, jittery, and on edge due to the cocktail of stimulants commonly found in OTC weight loss supplements.

Wouldn’t it be great if you could burn some extra fat without having to take a bunch of potentially hazardous stimulants or spend hours and hours on the treadmill?!

Your prayers might have been answered with Paradoxine®, a patented, standardized extract of Grains of Paradise that provides body re-composition benefits, without impacting your cardiovascular system.

What is Grains of Paradise?

Native to West Africa, Grains of Paradise (Aframomum melegueta) is a spice belonging to the Zingiberaceae family of plants that are similar to ginger. The pods of the plant contain reddish-brown seeds that are ground to give the spicy, peppery spice commonly used in cooking today.

Grains of Paradise can be found other several other names, including:

  • Melegueta Pepper
  • Fom Wisa
  • Alligator Pepper
  • Guinea Grains
  • Ossame

Within the seeds of Grains of Paradise, researchers have identified several compounds inside the seeds of the pungent spice that impart a powerful flavor and aroma to foods, but they’re also responsible for the fat-fighting abilities of the spice. Those compounds in particular are:

  • 6-paradol
  • 6-gingerdione
  • 6-gingerol
  • 6-shogaol

There’s a slew of other components present in the seed, but the two you really should be concerned with are 6-paradol and 6-gingerol. Interestingly enough, 6-gingerol is also found in ginger.

How does it work?

To understand how Paradoxine works in the body requires a discussion of the different types of adipose tissue (a.k.a. fat) in your body. There are two types of fat in the body:

  • Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT)
  • White Adipose Tissue (WAT)

White Fat is your body’s energy storage cells. Whatever extra calories aren’t immediately needed by the body are stored as “white” fat and are used when food intake is reduced. [1] White fat cells are large, round cells comprised of one big lipid droplet with a thin rim containing the nucleus and cytoplasm

Brown Fat, on the other hand, is the fat used for diet and cold-induced thermogenesis, maintaining your body’s normal temperature when exposed to cold. [1] The technical term for this is “non-shivering thermogenesis.” Brown fat cells aren’t only different in function than white fat cells, they’re structure is also different. Brown fat cells are comprised of smaller diameter cells, containing several smaller fat droplets compared to the one massive droplet that’s found in white fat.

The magic of Paradoxine® lies in its ability to brown your fat. That is, it transforms your white fat cells into brown fat cells, increasing energy expenditure and boosting weight loss. An added benefit to brown fat is that it can use blood sugar (glucose) and fats, leading to improved lipid levels and glucose metabolism, independent of weight loss! [8]

Paradoxine® Benefits

There have been quite a few purported stimulant-free fat burning supplements over the years, but when you dig down into the research, you see that they’re not actually all they’re cracked up to be.

That’s not the case with Paradoxine®. It actually has human trials demonstrating its effectiveness.

Increased Energy Expenditure

A 2013 study involving 19 healthy men, age 20-32, gave them either placebo or 40mg per day of Grains of Paradise extract. During the course of the four-week trial, researchers then placed the men in an air-conditioned room at 19°C (66.2°F) for two hours only wearing “light clothing” (a T-shirt with underwear). As if that wasn’t enough, they also had the men place their feet onto an ice block wrapped in cloth on and off (4 minutes on, 5 minutes off).

Following this two-hour cold fest, subjects underwent testing which included having their whole-body energy expenditure measured following a 6-12 hour fasting period. Researchers observed that the men consuming Grains of Paradise extract had a significantly greater increase in energy expenditure, seemingly due to the increased brown fat activity, than the group not receiving placebo. [2]

Increased Fat Loss

The other notable human trial on Paradoxine® involved women and measuredthe effects of the extracts on energy expenditure as well as body fat. 19 non-obese women (ages 20-22) were divided into two groups. The treatment group received one 10mg capsule of Grains of Paradise extract 30 minutes prior to each of their three daily meals, for a total of 30mg Grains of Paradise Extract per day. While the other group received a placebo.

At the end of the four-week trial, women again had their body fat and energy expenditure measured, and again the group receiving the Grains of Paradise extract has significantly greater results. Women receiving the extract experienced reduced visceral fat in the lower abdomen and greater energy expenditure while the placebo group saw a modest increase in visceral fat in the same area. [3]

The important thing to note here is that these results were obtained without any extra diet or exercise modifications!

Additional Benefits

Several animal studies have also been carried out using Grains of Paradise extracts and noted it lowered blood pressure, improved lipid profiles, and reduced chemical-induced liver damage (hepatotoxicity). [6,7]

Why Paradoxine®?

You’re probably wondering why we’re suggesting you use Paradoxine® as the preferred choice for a Grains of Paradise extract. The reason, is that it’s the only Grains of Paradise extract backed by any actual human research. It’s standardized to 15% Aframols® & 12.5% 6-paradol, the same grade of extract used in the human trials, and it’s backed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tests.

Who is Paradoxine® for?

Paradoxine® is ideal for anyone looking for improved body composition and enhanced fat loss from their supplements. It’s perfect to use in a thermogenic pre-workout, or as part of a more comprehensive fat burning formula. Paradoxine® is especially ideal for those stim-sensitive individuals who still want to get some extra fat burning, but don’t want the stims contained in most fat burners on the market.

Paradoxine® Dosage

Typically, Paradoxine® is dosed anywhere from 25-50mg per day, and with the “sweet spot” being in the 40-50mg range. This is where you’ll start to notice the enhanced thermogenic effect of the supplements, in the form of feeling significantly warmer than usual. And expect to be sweating buckets during your workout if your pre-workout contains a sizeable dose of this potent thermogenic. SteelFit® uses 40mg/serving of Paradoxine® in its stimulant free fat burner Steel Core® and 50mg/serving in its cardio enhancing pre-workout Steel Sweat™.


  1. Rosenwald M, Wolfrum C; “The origin and definition of brite versus white and classical brown adipocytes”; Adipocyte; 2014;3(1):4-9;
  2. Sugita, J., Yoneshiro, T., et al; “Grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta) extract activates brown adipose tissue and increases whole-body energy expenditure in men”; British Journal of Nutrition; (2013) 110(4), pp. 733–738;
  3. Sugita J, Yoneshiro T, et al; “Daily ingestion of grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta) extract increases whole-body energy expenditure and decreases visceral fat in humans”; Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology; 2014, 60(1): 22-27;
  4. Momoe Iwami, Fatma A. Mahmoud, et al; “Extract of grains of paradise and its active principle 6-paradol trigger thermogenesis of brown adipose tissue in rats”; Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical; 161 (2011); 63–67;
  5. Ilic N, Schmidt BM, Poulev A, Raskin I; “Toxicological evaluation of Grains of Paradise (Aframomum melegueta) [Roscoe] K. Schum”; Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2010;127(2);
  6. Adefegha, Stephen A. et al; “Alligator pepper/Grain of Paradise (Aframomum melegueta) modulates Angiotensin-I converting enzyme activity, lipid profile and oxidative imbalances in a rat model of hypercholesterolemia”; Pathophysiology; Volume 23, Issue 3, 191 – 202;
  7. Semwal R, Semwal D, Combrinck S, Viljoen A; “Gingerols and shogaols: Important nutraceutical principles from ginger”; Phytochemistry;
  8. Kim SH, Plutzky J; “Brown Fat and Browning for the Treatment of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders”; Diabetes & Metabolism Journal. 2016;40(1):12-21;
  9. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Food and Drug Administration; “Guidance for Industry: Estimating the Maximum Safe Starting Dose in Initial Clinical Trials for Therapeutics in Adult Healthy Volunteers”; July 2005;
  10. Wikipedia contributors; “List of Good Eats episodes.”; Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia; July 21 2016;
  11. Saito, A; “Acute oral toxicity of capsaicin in mice and rats.”; The Journal of Toxicological Sciences; 1996 Aug; 21(3):195-200;

The Complete Guide to Thermogenesis

When it comes to weight loss supplements and fat burners, the words “thermogenesis” and “thermogenic” are used extremely frequently. Based on the way these two words are splashed across advertisements, you’re led to believe it’s a good thing to boost, increase, or enhance.

But have you ever wondered what thermogenesis means, or why you would want to increase it?

That’s what this guide is for.

We’re here to explain all the ins and outs of thermogenesis and why you want your fat burner to increase it, especially if you want to drop the fat fast.

What is Thermogenesis?

Thermogenesis is the metabolic process by which organisms burn calories in order to generate heat.

A simpler way to say that is thermogenesis is the body’s way of producing heat. It does this by “burning” calories.

Thermogenics are ingredients or supplements that help increase the production of heat in the body, and as a result, increase the number of calories you expend. This translates to greater calorie burn throughout the day, which in theory, should help you lose weight faster.

There are a number of ingredients commonly touted as thermogenics, which we’ll get to a little later in this article, but first, let’s take a moment to review the different types of thermogenesis that occur in the body.

Types of Thermogenesis

On the surface, thermogenesis seems fairly straightforward — it’s how your body produces heat. But, as it turns out, there’s not just one type of thermogenesis. Science has broken it down into three (or four, depending on the classification scheme) types.

So, with that in mind, let’s take a second to review each of the different forms and discuss what separates them from one another.

Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)

Basal metabolic rate (BMR) consists of the calories your body burns to carry out essential functions for survival. This includes such things as circulating blood throughout the body, breathing, etc.

Essentially, BMR accounts for the energy to perform vital body processes while you’re at rest. It’s the number of calories your body burns if you did nothing but lay in bed all day long.

Basal metabolic rate is the largest contributor to energy expenditure during the day, [1] accounting for 60-75% of total calories burned.

Diet-Induced Thermogenesis

The second type of thermogenesis is diet-induced thermogenesis. Scientists have defined diet-induced thermogenesis as:

“the increase in energy expenditure above basal fasting level divided by the energy content of the food ingested and is commonly expressed as a percentage” [2]

A simpler explanation of diet-induced thermogenesis would be — the number of calories you burn eating, digesting, absorbing, and transporting nutrients from the food you ate.

Now, here’s where things get interesting with diet-induced thermogenesis. Each macronutrient has a different thermic effect of food, meaning that your body burns different amounts of calories depending on what type of food you’re eating.

So, let’s take a look at that now:

  • Protein – The most metabolically demanding macronutrient for your body to digest and absorb. [3] Its thermic effect of food is about 20-35%, which means that if you eat a piece of protein that contains 100 calories, depending on what type of protein it is, your body will burn 20-35 calories simply trying to break down that food.
  • Carbohydrate – After protein, carbohydrate is the next most metabolically demanding macronutrient to digest and absorb. Its thermic effect of food is 5-10% of calories consumed. [4]
  • Fat – The least calorie-intensive macronutrient to digest and absorb is fat. It has a thermic effect of food of about 5%.

In total, the thermic effect of food, or diet-induced thermogenesis, accounts for about 10% of your total daily energy expenditure.

Now, most of you reading this don’t eat one single type of macronutrient at a time. Even a whey protein shake, which is mostly protein, still has trace amounts of carbohydrates and fat. So, how do you figure out the diet-induced thermogenesis of a mixed meal?

Let’s use whey protein as an example:

Let’s say your scoop of whey protein contains 25 grams of protein, 3 grams of carbs, and 2 grams of fat.

How do you figure out the thermic effect of food with this?


Just use the percentages we listed above for each of the macronutrients, and you’ll have an estimate of how many calories your body expends digesting your whey protein shake.

So, it would look something like this:

  • Protein = 25 grams * 4 calories/gram = 100 calories
  • Carbohydrate = 3 grams * 4 calories/gram = 12 calories
  • Fat = 2 grams * 9 calories/gram = 18 calories

This gives us a total of 130 calories from our scoop of protein.

To figure out how many calories you’re actually getting from this whey protein shake, we’ll apply the percentages we listed above:

  • Protein = 25% * 100 calories = 25 calories burned
  • Carbohydrate = 10% * 12 calories = 1.2 calories burned
  • Fat = 5% * 18 calories = 0.9 calories burned

Thermic effect of food = 25 + 1.2 + 0.9 = 27.1 calories burned

Net calorie yield from whey protein shake = 130 – 27.1 = 102.9 calories

As you can see, due to the thermic effect of food, that 130 calorie protein shake may only deliver 102.9 calories of actual energy.

Based on this simple example, you can see how your food selections can have a significant impact on energy balance (calories in vs calories out). Diets with a higher proportion of protein will inherently require more energy to digest than diets with lower proportions of protein. This is why many coaches and trainers advocate high protein diets, especially during times of weight loss.

Not only do high protein diets lead to a greater calorie burn, protein also is more satiating than either carbohydrates or fats. Eating more protein can help you feel fuller for longer, which is a very good thing if you’re dieting and reducing overall calorie intake each day.

Now, let’s discuss the final factor impacting thermogenesis.

Energy Cost of Physical Activity

The final form of thermogenesis comes from your daily activity. Exercise scientists have further divided this category into two “subcategories”, which is why we said there were four types of thermogenesis at the top.

Those two subcategories are:

  • Exercise Activity Thermogenesis
  • Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT)

Exercise Activity Thermogenesis, as you probably guessed, is the calories your body expends during any type of exercise you perform. This includes weight lifting, steady-state cardio (walking or jogging), high-intensity interval training, CrossFit, etc. Basically, any type of structured physical activity that’s more intense than just walking from point A to point B falls under this subcategory.

Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis describes the number of calories you expend in all other physical activity that isn’t specifically “exercise”. This includes standing, walking from room to room, tapping your finger or foot, fidgeting, etc. This number is highly variable depending on how much you move around during the day. For example, someone who works a physically demanding, manual labor job will burn far more calories during the day than a sedentary office worker who spends 8 hours each day sitting at a desk.

Combining both exercise activity thermogenesis and non-exercise activity thermogenesis gives us our total energy cost of physical activity each day. This number can vary between 15-30% of your total daily energy expenditure [5], depending on how active you are on a given day.

This constitutes all the major contributors to daily thermogenesis. Add each of these three major categories up, and you have your total daily energy expenditure.

Now, let’s look at a few outside factors that could potentially increase thermogenesis.

Thermal Stress

Thermal stress refers to the impact the temperature of the environment has on your body temperature. You see, while we can survive in any number of climates, your core temperature has a very limited range that is considered safe. Go any higher or lower than this range, and things start going very bad, very quickly for you.

The body can only tolerate a drop-in body temperature of approximately 10 degrees Fahrenheit, and a rise in temperature of 5 degrees Fahrenheit. If the average temperature of a person is 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit, this gives you a “safe range” of about 88.6-103.6 degrees Fahrenheit. Note that this is the range your body can survive. It’s certainly not optimal to be at the extremes of this range though.

So, what happens if you do start to drift too far away from the typical 98.6-degree core temperature?

Fortunately for you, the hypothalamus has that handled.

When it gets too hot and your core temperature starts to rise, your body will use one of four processes to cool you off:

  • Conduction
  • Convection
  • Radiation
  • Evaporation

Heat leaves the body via evaporation when you sweat and respirate (breathe). Additionally, your body will also move warm blood to superficial blood vessels (ones closer to the skin). Note that this can lead to a reddish or flushed appearance.

When it’s too cold outside (blizzard in the middle of winter), your body tries to keep warm. It does this by pulling blood away from your hands, feet, face, and directing it towards your core, which keeps your better insulated.

Your body can also increase thermogenesis by shivering, which keeps you warm and significantly boosts metabolism!

In both of these scenarios, your daily thermogenesis (and total daily energy expenditure) is ramped up considerably.

Now, a lot of people will take this thermal stress effect and attempt to train in very hot or very cold environments. While it may seem like a good idea to train in adverse climates, in the effort to create an even greater calorie burn, the truth is, it wouldn’t be all that effective.

You see, when you train in extreme climate conditions, your performance suffers substantially, so while your body might be burning more calories trying to maintain its temperature, your actually not having as effective of a workout as you would be if you were training in a more “normal” training environment.

We’ve just about covered everything that can impact thermogenesis on a day in, day out basis, except supplements.

As we stated at the beginning thermogenic supplements make up a huge portion of the weight loss supplement market, but…

Can Supplements Actually Increase Thermogenesis?

YOU BET they do!

Sports nutrition scientists have discovered several supplements that do increase thermogenesis, and research confirms as much. These thermogenic supplements increase energy expenditure, helping you burn more calories each day (even while you rest!) and lose fat faster.

Let’s take a look at some of the best thermogenic supplements on the market.

Best Thermogenic Supplements


Paradoxine® is a patented extract of Grains of Paradise, a pungent West African spice that belongs to the ginger family. Paradoxine® stimulates the brown fat on your body, increasing thermogenesis and energy expenditure that help support weight loss. [6,7]

Ginger Root

Commonly seen in Asian cooking, ginger is another pungent spice loaded with metabolism-boosting compounds. These compounds are called gingerols, with 6-gingerol being the one most well known as a “thermogenic”.

6-gingerol activates the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ), which increases thermogenesis by “browning” white fat, similar to how Paradoxine works. [8,9,10] This leads to greater calorie burn during the day, and ultimately faster fat loss.


One of the newest thermogenics to burst onto the scene is CapsiAtra®, a patented extract of sweet peppers standardized for dihydrocapsiate, a close relative of capsaicin. As you might know, capsaicin is the pungent alkaloid naturally present in chile peppers that gives them the tongue-numbing bite.

The difference between CapsiAtra® and capsaicin is that CapsiAtra® doesn’t come with the unpleasant GI upset and off-putting “burning” sensation that capsaicin does.

As far as effectiveness, human studies using the novel thermogenic supplement note it can help you burn an extra 50 calories per day via increasing fat oxidation and energy expenditure. [11]


Extracted from Evodiae Fructus, a member of the Tetradium genus of plants, Evodiamine is another potent that is similar to capsaicin. As such, evodiamine is itself a strong thermogenic, and on top of that, it’s also been shown to inhibit fat uptake. [12,13]

This means that not only can evodiamine help you burn more calories during the day, but it may also help prevent you from absorbing some of the fat calories from your meals too!

Now, you could try to source all of these ingredients yourself and formulate your own potent thermogenic fat burning supplement, but that tends to involve a lot of time, effort, and expense.

We’ve already done the research and development for you and created the perfect thermogenic for your fat loss needs in Steel Sweat!

Steel Sweat — The Ultimate Thermogenic Supplement

If you’re looking to enhance thermogenesis, increase calorie burn, and accelerate fat loss, there’s no better place to look than Steel Sweat.

Steel Sweat™ contains a powerful matrix of proven thermogenic agents including Paradoxine®, Ginger root, Evodiamine, and CapsiAtra®, along with several other performance-enhancing, fat-melting ingredients such as caffeine and L-Carnitine L-Tartrate.

Each serving of Steel Sweat™ will help boost performance during your cardio sessions, spiking your metabolism and burning calories like never before. Steel Sweat also works well as a lower stim fat-burning pre-workout on your resistance training days as well. The lipolytic agents present in Steel Sweat help burn fat for fuel, thereby sparing your glycogen stores for the really intense lifts during your workout.

Steel Sweat™ is ideal for any training scenario and can help you lose fat faste, while achieving your performance goals. Just be ready for the heat wave that ensues. No other supplement creates the burn


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  2. Westerterp KR. Diet induced thermogenesis. Nutrition & Metabolism. 2004;1:5. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-1-5.
  3. Halton, T., Hu, F. 2004. The effects of high protein diets on thermogenesis, satiety and weight loss: a critical review. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 23(5): 373-85
  4. Nair, K., Halliday, D., Garrow, J. 1982. Thermic response to isoenergetic protein, carbohydrate or fat meals in lean and obese subjects. Clinical Science 65: 307-312
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  6. Sugita, J., Yoneshiro, T., et al; “Grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta) extract activates brown adipose tissue and increases whole-body energy expenditure in men”; British Journal of Nutrition; (2013) 110(4), pp. 733–738;
  7. Sugita J, Yoneshiro T, et al; “Daily ingestion of grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta) extract increases whole-body energy expenditure and decreases visceral fat in humans”; Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology; 2014, 60(1): 22-27;
  8. Wang, S., Zhang, C., Yang, G., & Yang, Y. (2014). Biological properties of 6-gingerol: a brief review. Natural Product Communications, 9(7), 1027–1030.
  9. Misawa, K., Hashizume, K., Yamamoto, M., Minegishi, Y., Hase, T., & Shimotoyodome, A. (2015). Ginger extract prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice via activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta pathway. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 26(10), 1058–1067.
  10. Saravanan, G., Ponmurugan, P., Deepa, M. A., & Senthilkumar, B. (2014). Anti-obesity action of gingerol: effect on lipid profile, insulin, leptin, amylase and lipase in male obese rats induced by a high-fat diet. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 94(14), 2972–2977.
  11. Galgani JE, Ravussin E. Effect of dihydrocapsiate on resting metabolic rate in humans. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2010;92(5):1089-1093. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2010.30036.
  12. Wang T, et al. Evodiamine improves diet-induced obesity in a uncoupling protein-1-independent manner: involvement of antiadipogenic mechanism and extracellularly regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Endocrinology. (2008)
  13. Zhang LL, et al. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 channel prevents adipogenesis and obesity. Circ Res. (2007)